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Are hormones biotic or abiotic? I have tried reading different articles, and I've found that it is both, but can that be true?
Hormones occur inside organisms as signaling factors, and arise from biological activities, the development or homeostasis of the organism.
Thus, they are considered neither biotic nor abiotic factors in ecology.
(Terrible analogy warning!) It's a bit like asking whether the wheel of a car is petrol- or diesel-based. It makes no sense!
Here's a helpful, comprehensive website.
Biotic (living) factors are living organisms in an ecosystem, that must share common resources or compete in a habitat one way or another. Abiotic (non-living) factors are things like temperature, wind, salinity, etc. that affect individuals or the community of an ecosystem.
As you can see, hormones are just one of many components of a living organism. They aren't living themselves. It's a silly question to ask, as I hope you can see now.
What is abiotic in biology?
Social factors include how the land is being used and water resources in the area. Five common abiotic factors are atmosphere, chemical elements, sunlight/temperature, wind and water.
Secondly, what are some abiotic examples? Examples of Abiotic Factors Abiotic variables found in terrestrial ecosystems can include things like rain, wind, temperature, altitude, soil, pollution, nutrients, pH, types of soil, and sunlight. The boundaries of an individual abiotic factor can be just as unclear as the boundaries of an ecosystem.
Correspondingly, what is the meaning of biotic and abiotic?
In ecology and biology, abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment which affect ecosystems. Biotic describes a living component of an ecosystem for example organisms, such as plants and animals.
What are the biotic and abiotic resources?
Abiotic factors refer to non-living physical and chemical elements in the ecosystem. Abiotic resources are usually obtained from the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Examples of abiotic factors are water, air, soil, sunlight, and minerals. Biotic factors are living or once-living organisms in the ecosystem.
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Biotic factors are the living things in an ecosystem so they do not recycle. Abiotic factors are the different physical and chemical components available like temperature, air, water, minerals, rocks,and PH. Not ll of them are recycled.
Biotic factors reproduce and die as whole individuals. Physical abiotic factors like temperature, light, heat, and humidity, change according to the topography, altitude, and presence of other biotic and chemical factors in the ecosystem. Now comes the chemical compounds which are the ones that recycle. Chemicals in the ecosystem are looked at as compounds like water, or elements like carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Each of these is recycled by being transferred from one factor(being biotic or abiotic) to another through different types of processes. This recycling of the one material is called a cycle. Each cycle is studied separately for simplicity, but they never exist as separate processes in nature. This is why we call them the carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle ans so on.
Hormone balance and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants
Plant hormones play central roles in the ability of plants to adapt to changing environments, by mediating growth, development, nutrient allocation, and source/sink transitions. Although ABA is the most studied stress-responsive hormone, the role of cytokinins, brassinosteroids, and auxins during environmental stress is emerging. Recent evidence indicated that plant hormones are involved in multiple processes. Cross-talk between the different plant hormones results in synergetic or antagonic interactions that play crucial roles in response of plants to abiotic stress. The characterization of the molecular mechanisms regulating hormone synthesis, signaling, and action are facilitating the modification of hormone biosynthetic pathways for the generation of transgenic crop plants with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.
► Hormones play central roles in plant adaptation to changing environments. ► Hormonal cross-talk regulates plant responses. ► Large changes in hormone content can have negative effects on plant growth and development. ► The use of inducible promoters will facilitate the generation of stress tolerance crops.
Hormones - biotic or abiotic - Biology
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Growth hormone transgenesis affects thermal tolerance in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
In fish, growth hormone (GH)-transgenesis may modify physiological mechanisms of adaptation when challenged by biotic and abiotic stressors. Thus, we evaluated whether GH overexpression can alter the thermal tolerance of adult and juvenile GH-transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio). This study compared the thermal tolerance in non-transgenic (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) zebrafish exposed to 13 °C, 39 °C, or 28 °C (control) for 96 h. Mortality rate was checked every 12 h in juvenile (8 week-old) and adult males (6 month-old). Exposure to different temperatures revealed that GH overexpression increases the tolerance of transgenic juveniles exposed to 13 °C and diminishes the tolerance of juveniles and adults, when exposed to 39 °C. Additionally, we have analyzed transcriptional expression from the heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are mainly involved in the thermal tolerance mechanism. The mRNA level analysis results revealed that, under controlled conditions (28 °C), GH-transgenesis upregulates the expression of hsp47, hsp70, hsp90a and heat shock transcription factor (hsf1a) in transgenic juveniles, although the same result was not observed in transgenic adults. Exposure to low temperature did not alter the expression of any analyzed gene, both in adults and in juveniles. Exposure to 39 °C decreased the expression of all genes analyzed, in GH-transgenic adults. Furthermore, the HSP expression pattern was analyzed via hierarchical clustering. This analysis revealed two major clusters illustrating the dependency of gene changes related to age. These results indicate that the GH overexpression can alter thermal tolerance of fish, depending of age and temperature.
- GH-transgenesis increased the survival rate of juveniles at low temperature
- High temperature is more lethal for juvenile ande adult GH-transgenic zebrafish
- GH-transgenesis increased expression of hsf1a, hsp47, and hsp70 genes in juvenile zebrafish
- hsf1a, hsp47, hsp70, hsp90a, and hsp90b genes expression is diminished in adult zebrafish GH-transgenesis exposure at high temperature.
Hormones - biotic or abiotic - Biology
Biotic and abiotic stresses impose a serious limitation on crop productivity worldwide. Prior or simultaneous exposure to one type of stress often affects the plant response to other stresses, indicating extensive overlap and crosstalk between stress-response signaling pathways. Systems biology approaches that integrate large genomic and proteomic data sets have facilitated identification of candidate genes that govern this stress-regulatory crosstalk. Recently, we constructed a yeast two-hybrid map around three rice proteins that control the response to biotic and abiotic stresses, namely the immune receptor XA21, which confers resistance to the Gram-negative bacterium, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae NH1, the rice ortholog of NPR1, a key regulator of systemic acquired resistance and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor, SUB1A, which confers tolerance to submergence stress. These studies coupled with transcriptional profiling and co-expression analyses identified a suite of proteins that are positioned at the interface of biotic and abiotic stress responses, including mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (OsMPK5), wall-associated kinase 25 (WAK25), sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-1 (SnRK1), SUB1A binding protein 23 (SAB23), and several WRKY family transcription factors. Emerging evidence suggests that these genes orchestrate crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stresses through a variety of mechanisms, including regulation of cellular energy homeostasis and modification of synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions between the stress hormones salicylic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid.
The XA21, NH1, and SUB1A genes control the rice response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Interactomics and computational network analysis of these genes led to identification of shared signaling components. Together, these shape the outcome of stress crosstalk by modulating hormone signaling and cellular energy homeostasis.
Plant hormone-mediated regulation of stress responses
Background: Being sessile organisms, plants are often exposed to a wide array of abiotic and biotic stresses. Abiotic stress conditions include drought, heat, cold and salinity, whereas biotic stress arises mainly from bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and insects. To adapt to such adverse situations, plants have evolved well-developed mechanisms that help to perceive the stress signal and enable optimal growth response. Phytohormones play critical roles in helping the plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. The elaborate hormone signaling networks and their ability to crosstalk make them ideal candidates for mediating defense responses. Results: Recent research findings have helped to clarify the elaborate signaling networks and the sophisticated crosstalk occurring among the different hormone signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the roles of the major plant hormones in regulating abiotic and biotic stress responses with special focus on the significance of crosstalk between different hormones in generating a sophisticated and efficient stress response. We divided the discussion into the roles of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonates and ethylene separately at the start of the review. Subsequently, we have discussed the crosstalk among them, followed by crosstalk with growth promoting hormones (gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins). These have been illustrated with examples drawn from selected abiotic and biotic stress responses. The discussion on seed dormancy and germination serves to illustrate the fine balance that can be enforced by the two key hormones ABA and GA in regulating plant responses to environmental signals. Conclusions: The intricate web of crosstalk among the often redundant multitudes of signaling intermediates is just beginning to be understood. Future research employing genome-scale systems biology approaches to solve problems of such magnitude will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of plant development. Therefore, discovering additional crosstalk mechanisms among various hormones in coordinating growth under stress will be an important theme in the field of abiotic stress research. Such efforts will help to reveal important points of genetic control that can be useful to engineer stress tolerant crops.
The term abiotic refers to all the non-living factors present in an ecosystem. Sunlight, water, land, all constitute the abiotic factors.
Abiotic factors refer to all the non-living, i.e. chemical and physical factors present in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Sunlight, air, precipitation, minerals, and soil are some examples of abiotic factors. These factors have a significant impact on the survival and reproduction of species in an ecosystem.
For instance, without an adequate amount of sunlight, autotrophic organisms may not be able to survive. When these organisms eventually die, it will create a shortage of food for primary consumers. This effect cascades up the food chain, affecting every organism. Consequently, it leads to an imbalance in the ecosystem.
Examples of Abiotic Factors
Abiotic examples typically depend on the type of ecosystem. For instance, abiotic components in a terrestrial ecosystem include air, weather, water, temperature, humidity, altitude, the pH level of soil, type of soil and more. Abiotic examples in an aquatic ecosystem include water salinity, oxygen levels, pH levels, water flow rate, water depth and temperature.
Now, let’s have a look at the significant difference between the abiotic and biotic factors.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are endogenously produced by several plant organelles and compartments, particularly those with high electron transport rates, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes as metabolic by-products that act as cellular messengers and redox regulators of several plant biological processes. Excessive accumulation of ROS causes oxidative stress leading to protein denaturation, lipids peroxidation, and nucleotides degradation, which results in cellular damage and ultimately cell death. Functional approaches have provided evidence of the convergence of signaling pathways regulating plant responses to developmental cues and abiotic and biotic stress factors. They have highlighted the role of phytohormones and redox signaling, and identified key regulatory elements – molecular hubs – where multiple signaling cascades converge. The integration of multiple signals through these hubs allows the plant to fine-tune its response to particular conditions. In this regard, growing evidence shows that the generation of ROS is one of the most common plant responses to different stresses, representing a point at which various signaling pathways come together to modulate the plant response to environmental cues. Redox regulation of integral pathway proteins provides a rapid and simple mechanism for the regulation of plant development and defence pathways. MAPK pathways are common and versatile signaling components that lie downstream of second messengers and hormones, and play central roles in plant responses to various stresses.