At what point is a picked flower considered dead?

At what point is a picked flower considered dead?

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Let a flower be picked from the ground such that its stem is cut and the flower is separated from the root system (as in figure).


1a. At what point is it considered dead?

  1. Does the flower and attached bit of stem continue to live for some time before dying?

  2. Is this like asking when an limb that has been chopped off an animal dies - should we considered not the flower, but the root system?

1b. How does one define death for an organism without a nervous system?

This is very much analogous to your "limb" suggestion, or, since the flower is a reproductive organ, one can ask,

At exactly what point is the uterus considered dead after a hysterectomy?


At exactly what point are the testicles considered dead after a male dog is castrated?

The organism (woman and dog respectively) does not die. Tissue dies. Tissue dies all the time. Red Blood cells die after about 120 days, give or take. Skin cells die faster than that.

It depends on the definition of death. If one of the requirements for "life" is the ability to reproduce, are both the woman and the dog now dead? Of course not. They had the potential, or perhaps they already reproduced.

If one of the requirements for "life" is the ability to grow, well, the uterus and the testicles are dead immediately upon removal. But we stop "growing", and we don't die.

If one of the requirements for "life" is the ability to respond to its environment, the uterus and the testicles are not dead. They are "alive" for a time, though the environment is toxic to them if thrown away. If placed in nutritious media, they will "live" a bit longer.

Common sense, which often isn't reliable in science, would dictate that the flower dies when it can no longer maintain cell turgor, i.e. can no longer absorb fluids. But the argument can be made that it is only "dying" at that point.

Basically your question depends entirely on the definition of life. And that has not been agreed upon.

For a time, a cut flower with a stem, when placed in water can still absorb water. If other nutrients are placed in the water (such as sugar) the flower can continue to absorb those nutrients. If the stem is cut just below the node, and the water is changed, some cut flowers can stay alive for a few weeks. They are alive in that they continue to absorb nutrients through the stem (including water) and some types of cut flowers will visibly grow for a time. However, at a certain point, growth will stop and the flower will begin to wither. The process is more gradual than in an animal, so the moment of 'death' would not be observable.

That said there are some flowers that will grow new roots from the stem, such as geranium. In that case, the cutting can be considered part of a process of regeneration or reproduction.

Facts about Flowers for Kids

To most humans, flowers are seen as objects to decorate homes, gardens, bodies, and more. However, flowers have a much more important purpose than decorating. Flowers are the part of plants that make seeds which in turn make new plants. In order to make a seed, pollen from one flower has to combine with the eggs from another flower this is called pollination. Flowers are highly adapted to attract their specific pollinators such as bees, flies, moths, hummingbirds, and bats just to name a few. This is why flowers are brightly colored and highly scented making them the beautiful creations that they are. The facts about flowers are that without them, we would not have food, medicines, dyes, textiles, and other necessities of daily living. There are so many interesting facts about flowers!

How Flowers Eat and Grow--Photosynthesis

Some facts about flowers are that flowers get their food from sunlight, water, and minerals in the soil flowers are the reproductive parts of a plant, and plants make their own food by photosynthesis.

Plants can photosynthesize due to cells called chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll this is what makes plants green. Sun strikes the chloroplasts and combines with carbon dioxide that plants get from their leaves, and water that plants get through their roots, to produce sugar, or glucose. This is the plant's food, and this gives the plant energy to grow and produce flowers.

Plants take in carbon dioxide, or CO 2 ,through little holes in their leaves, which are called stomata. They then produce and release oxygen through the stomata. Plants and animals were meant to live together! Animals need the oxygen that plants put out, and plants need the carbon dioxide that animals put out.

Sometimes people add fertilizer, or plant food, to give plants extra minerals and nutrients so that they can grow better. Fertilizer does not take the place of sunlight and water.

Without sunlight and water, plants will die.

Parts of a Flower

The outside of a flower that can be seen easily consists of petals, the colored part of the flower, and the sepals, the small green structures that look like little petals at the base of the flower.

Inside a flower is the pistil, or the female parts of the flower. The pistil looks like a vase with a long neck. The top of this "vase" is called the stigma. The long neck is called the style. The bottom, fatter part of the vase is the ovary and contains the ovules, or eggs.

Also inside the flower are the male parts of the flower, called the stamens. The stamen consists of the anther and the filament. The filament looks like a stiff, standing piece of string. On top of the filament is a rounded ball of pollen called the anther. The pollen is usually a bright yellow or orange color.

Pollinators like bees, animals, and birds come and gather pollen from the flowers. The pollen sticks to their bodies. When they go to visit another flower to gather more pollen, the pollen from the previous flower drops into the pistil of the new flower, fertilizes the eggs inside the ovary, and seeds are made.

Interesting Facts about Flowers

Flowers did not always exist they first appeared 140 million years ago. Before that, ferns and cone bearing trees dominated the earth.

Several centuries ago in Holland, tulips were more valuable than gold.

Broccoli is actually a flower.

Some plants such as orchids do not need soil to grow-they get all of their nutrients from the air.

Some plants produce toxic substances that kill other plants around them-the sunflower is an example.

Carnivorous plants are flowering plants that eat bugs and small animals! For example, the Venus fly trap has leaves covered by little hairs. When a bug lands on the hairs, the trap snaps shut and digestive juices digest the bug. Other carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants have leaves that form pitchers that are full of digestive fluids. Insects, frogs, and other small creatures are attracted to the nectar and bright colors on the pitchers and flowers. Some unfortunate critters fall in, drown, and are digested.

Fun Facts about Flowers: Weird Flowers

Not all flowers smell good. One of the world's rarest, largest, smelliest, and strangest looking flower is the titan arum, or the corpse flower. It is called the corpse flower because it smells like a rotting dead body. The bloom is over 8 foot tall and 12 feet in circumference. They smell like rotting flesh in order to attract flies, their preferred pollinator. People have been known to pass out from the smell!

The largest Flower in the world is the flower of the Puya raimondii, which has a flower stalk 35,000 feet tall and bears over 8,000 white flowers.

Mimosa punica, or sensitive plant, will actually fold up its leaves when it is touched. It has whitish pink fuzzy flowers that look like little pom poms.

The Bird of Paradise is a beautiful, oddly shaped plant that resembles a colorful tropical bird.

Corkscrew vine flower, Vigna Caracalla, has a flower shaped like nautilus shells.

Flowers for Kids-Fun Activities to Do with Flowers

Snap Dragon flowers look like little mouths. If you squeeze the sides of the flower, the mouth will open and it can "eat" things. When you release the sides of the flower, it will close again.

Lunaria, or money plant, has purple flowers that turn into silver papery quarter shaped seedpods that can be used like play money or jewelry.

False dragonhead or obedient plant has a spike full of flowers that can be bent into position.

Hollyhocks are fun flowers for kids. They have large beautiful flowers that can be made into dolls. Cut off a flower, bud and all for the body and skirt and then choose a bud for the head. Attach it with a toothpick. Draw a face with markers.

Press and dry flowers and make crafts. Pick flowers that can be flattened, like violets and put them between the pages of very heavy books. The pressed flowers can be made into placemats, jewelry, and other crafts.

One of the fun facts about flowers is that some flowers can be eaten! Flowers of the squash flowers, such as pumpkin blossoms, can be fried in a batter and eaten. Violas, nasturtiums, pansies, and violets can be candied or frozen into ice cubes. Dandelion flowers can be made into jellies, added to salads, or made into tea. Before you eat any flower, make sure an adult has said it is safe. Some plants are poisonous or have been sprayed with poisonous pesticides.

Make a daisy chain of flowers by picking flowers with long stems, making a slit in the stem, and pulling the stem of the second stem through until the flower head can't be pulled through. Continue this to make a chain which can be made into jewelry or garlands.

Why You Should Be Removing Dead Flowers

The question then becomes, “Should I pull the old flowers off the plant?” or “Will removing the old flowers hurt my plant?”

The answer to the first question is “Yes, you should pull the old flowers off.” This process is called deadheading. Unless you plan on collecting seeds from the plant, the old flowers serve no purpose once they have lost their beauty.

The best way to remove these faded blossoms is to snip or pinch the base of the flower to separate the flower from the stem. This way, the clean cut will heal faster and there is less likelihood of damage to the rest of the plant.

The answer to the second question, “Will this hurt my plant?” is both yes and no. The removal of the old flower does cause a small wound on the plant, but, if you are careful to make sure that the old flower is removed with a clean cut, the damage done to the plant is minimal.

The benefits of removing the flower far outweigh the damage. When you remove the faded flower on a plant, you are also removing the seedpod. If the flower is not removed, the plant will put an enormous amount of energy towards developing those seeds to the point where root, foliage, and flower production is negatively affected. By removing the faded flowers, you are allowing all the energy to be directed towards better growth in the plant and additional flowers.

Pulling the old flowers off your plants is actually doing both your plant and yourself a favor. You will be able to enjoy more blooms from a larger and healthier plant if you do this.

At what point is a picked flower considered dead? - Biology

Pruning & Spent Flower Removal

When to Prune: Typically, rhododendrons and azaleas are pruned after they bloom. This preserves the current seasons bloom, and allows time for the plant to produce flower buds for next years bloom. Rhododendrons and azaleas set next year's flower buds by mid to late summer. Pruning branches after buds are set removes next year's flowers. Rhododendrons and azaleas send out new growth after they bloom or after a branch is pruned. Late summer or fall pruning is not advisable as new growth may not be hardened off prior to first frost and may be subject to damage. Some rhododendrons that bloom very heavily can be pruned prior to bloom to reduce the number of flowers and thus maintain plant vigor.

The major reasons for pruning a plant are:
1.) removal of dead, diseased, or damaged branches,
2.) shaping of the plant, and
3.) plant rejuvenation.

Clean-Up Pruning: Removal of dead, diseased or damaged branches can be done at any time. Tools to use depend on the size of the branch, small branches can be removed with a pruning shear, larger branches require a lopper or pruning saw. Broken branches should be cut just above a dormant bud. Dead branches should be cut back to a branch point, where dormant buds can send out new growth. Interior branches that do not get any light may be removed, because they will eventually die. Diseased branches should be pruned well below any diseased area and disposed of in the trash bin.

Shape Pruning: Pruning for shape enhances the rhododendrons form and habit. All rhododendrons can be pruned to maintain their natural habit, but to try to keep a tall growing rhododendron small or low growing is not practical. Tall, leggy plants should be replaced with smaller varieties or plants having a low, mounding growth habit. If a plant grows out over a walk or needs to be restricted for some reason, it may be pruned back moderately without fear that the plant as a whole will be damaged. Remove weak or crossing branches. This provides improved air circulation and removes branches susceptible to disease and insect damage. Rhododendrons should be pruned just above a growth bud. Don't leave short branch stubs which will die and can become an entry point for disease.

Evergreen azaleas can be sheared for hedges or borders. Unlike rhododendrons, evergreen azaleas can be sheared each year after flowering to create a densely-shaped plant. Deciduous azaleas can be cut anywhere on the stem and they will branch from that point, though they should not be sheared as severely as evergreen azaleas. Pinching or shearing the new growth can induce branching. Timing is important if optimum results are to be achieved. If new shoots are pinched too early the likely result will be a single new branch replacing the nipped growing point. If pinching is done at the right time several buds will break below the point pruned. Early summer is usually a good time for shaping azaleas.

Rejuvenation Pruning: As rhododendrons age they lose leaves and often become open and very leggy. Rejuvenation pruning, can be useful to reshape a plant. By pruning just above viable dormant buds, new healthy growth can be directed to obtain a more desirable shape. The larger-leafed rhododendrons have many dormant buds that can be forced into new growth. However, on very old wood, the dormant buds may have atrophied and are not viable. So there is some risk that drastic pruning may not be successful. A safe procedure is cut out about one-third of the old wood spread over a period of three years. In this way, there remains sufficient leaves to supply nutrients to keep the plant growing successfully each year.

Spent Flower Removal (Deadheading): It is desirable, with the large flowered rhododendrons, to remove the withered flower clusters after the blooming season. This is fairly easily done as the central axis of the cluster, usually called a truss, will break free from the plant with a push of the thumb pushing on the side, or can be cut off with a hand pruner. (See photo.) Dead-heading is usually done to make the bush look more attractive, to reduce the prevalence of fungus and to prevent a heavy set of seed. If it is not possible to remove the old flowers, it is usually not too detrimental, but flowering the next year may be reduced. When deadheading care should be taken to not damage the growth buds or new shoots which are located just below the flower cluster.

Spent flower removal. Photo by Steve Henning

More information about how to prune rhododendrons and azaleas can be found in the following ARS articles:
How and When to Prune Rhododendrons by Warren Baldsiefen
Tips for Beginners: How To Prune Evergreen Azaleas by Tom Hughes
Tips for Beginners: Pruning of Rhododendrons and Azaleas by Ted Irving
Pruning Rhododendrons by Bill Stipe

Other Ways to Classify Plant Tissue

There are other ways to classify the basic plant tissue types, if the above separation seems too complicated. Some choose to classify three types of plant tissue, ground tissue, vascular tissue, and dermal tissue. This is basically the same as above, although it separates the epidermis and related tissue into the dermal category. The remaining tissues which are not vascular, it refers to as ground tissue.

Another way to classify plant tissue is based on its function. Certain tissues are only used for the purposes of photosynthesis and growth. Theses tissues can be referred to as vegetative tissue. The more specialized organs of the plant, such as flowers, fruits, and seeds, are all reproductive tissue. This method of classifying plant tissues is often used by those interested in plant genetics and reproduction, as these forms of the plant are often vastly different, genetically speaking, than the vegetative portions of the plant. Plants have a life-cycle which exhibits the alternation of generations, in which the internal portions of the flower are actually small, multicellular organisms differing genetically from the parent plant. For this reason, some scientists choose to view these tissues as separate.

1. Which of the following is not a plant tissue?
A. Parenchyma
B. Cork
C. Leaf

2. What is the main different between Parenchyma and Sclerenchyma plant tissues?
A. Parenchyma are protective cells
B. Sclerenchyma plant tissue photosynthesizes
C. Parenchyma cells have thinner walls and remain living

3. In your high-tech laboratory, you carefully cut part the epidermis from the top of a plant’s leaf. What will happen to the leaf?
A. It will dry out and die
B. It will keep photosynthesizing, but not regrow the epidermis
C. It will regrow the epidermis and survive

Endospermic seed structure (Eudicots): Cestroidae subgroup of Solanaceae - tobacco and other Nicotiana-species as model systems in seed biology

Nicotiana seeds are the type members of the Cestroideae subgroup of Solanaceae. LA-type seed.
In mature tobacco ( N. tabacum ) seeds the embryo is surrounded by three to five layers of rather thick-walled endosperm cells in the mature seed. The periphery of the endosperm is pressed against the thin testa (seed coat), which consists of an outer layer of cutinized and lignified dead cells and a living inner parenchyma layer. The maternal origin of theis living cell layer interposed between the endosperm and the dead outer testa is suggested by gene promoter studies and by genetic ablation. The micropylar endosperm surrounds the radicle tip and is the place of radicle protrusion during germination. The embryos are straight or slightly bent and the seeds are prismatic to subglobose (size < 1 mm). For further details with regard to the tobacco seed morphology see the references in the review by Leubner-Metzger (2003).

The seed structure of other Nicotiana species and of Petunia species is similar to tobacco. N. attenuata, N. sylvestris and N. plumbaginifolia are other well investigated Nicotiana-species. Testa rupture and endosperm rupture are distinct and temporally separated processes during the seed germination of Nicotiana- and Petunia-species (two-step germination process). For tobacco this two-step germination process has first been observed by Avery (1933), has been re-discovered by Arcila and Mohapatra (1983), and is a general feature of Cestroideae-type seeds (Leubner-Metzger 2003, Petruzzelli et al. 2003). Testa rupture and endosperm rupture are distinct and separate events in many seed species and are an important experimental advantage to pin-point the target sites for hormones ond genes in the germination process.
Both, the testa and the endosperm layer confer coat-imposed dormancy, which can be released by light, gibberellin or cold treatment of imbibed seeds, or by seed after-ripening during dry storage at room temperature.

Drawing showing a mature seed of Nicotiana rustica (Color image based on a drawing by Ioan Grintescu, In: Gicquet P and Hitier H, La Production du Tabac, J.-B. Baillière et fils, Paris 1961, p. 51). Color drawing published in Finch-Savage and Leubner-Metzger (2006).

Micropscopic picture of a sectioned dry mature Nicotiana tabacum seed: nuclei in the DAPI stain. The swap image "upon mouseover" shows the corresponding brightfield picture. Note that the testa has been removed except for the labeled testa remnant. © 2003 G. Leubner

Publication and tobacco seed drawings by Avery (1933):

The two drawings below are a redesign by me of Fig. 3K,L,M from Avery (1933).
Transverse section through seed at the cotyledonary level (x70).
Longitudinal-median section through seed just prior to endosperm rupture, showing ruptered testa (x50).
Longitudinal-median section through seedling at 9 days (x50).

Avery GSJ (1933)
American Journal of Botany 20: 309-327

Structure and germination of tobacco seed and the developmental anatomy of the seedling plant.
Avery (1933) - Download a PDF file - 3.7 MB

Classification of Vascular Plants

The vascular plants are embryophytes, which is a large clade or related group, consisting of both non-vascular and vascular plants. The embryophytes are further broken down into the Bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and non-vascular plants, and Tracheophyta. As the trachea in humans is a passageway for air, the term tracheophyte refers to the vascular tissue in vascular plants.

The tracheophytes are further divided into divisions. The divisions are distinguished mostly on how their spores and gametophytes function. In ferns and club-mosses, the gametophyte becomes a free-living generation. In gymnosperms (conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants), the gametophyte is dependent on the sporophyte. The gametes developed within become a seed, forming the next sporophyte generation. While every vascular plant shows an alternation of generations with a dominant sporophyte, they differ on how they go about distributing spores and seeds.

Why flowers are so important to our lives? 7 amazing facts

Titan Arum is not a new model from the collection of Titan watches Arum was making rounds in social media in the recent past, as it was again bloomed after so many years. This is largest flower in the world It is takes up to 7 years to bloom, The flower is only open for 48 hours and attracts thousands of visitors. The last occurrence was in July 22 this year in Tokyo’s Jindai Botanical Garden.

fact 1: If there no flowers, then no honey bees — means the 7.3 billion go extinct

Flowers are at a critical junction in our food chain — that starting point. For honey bees to produce honey, they consume pollen and nectar from a variety of flowers. Honey bees are attracted to gardens and fields that offer a variety of flowering vegetation. Honey bees are critical pollinators: they pollinate 70 of the around 100 crop species that feed 90% of the world. Which means a world without bees could struggle to sustain the global human population of 7.3 billion.

Hollywood actor Morgan Free man has taken up this random act of kindness of preserving the honey bees in the united states He calls himself the bee keeper. He has converted his 124-acre ranch into bee refuge to combat colony collapse crisis.

fact 2: Symbol of happiness — flowers are a very easiest way of changing human mood

Fact 2 — this is my finding, If you do not agree with me on this — please close your eyes and imagine you are entering into room and you see the entire room is decorated with different colors of flowers. Just stay that position and imagine about the all the flowers that you know of. Spent sometime in this room, go to each and every flower and have look at them, smell them, touch them, feel them. Now open your eyes gently.I guarantee that you feel more better now.

fact 3: Like Bangalore, there are many cities named as Garden Cities in the world

Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan contributed towards the beautification of the city by building Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760. Bangalore’s reputation as the “Garden City of India” began in 1927 with the silver jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to improve the city. Bangalore is the third-largest city in India and was voted as “the most live-able” by to a global survey of cities conducted by Mercer. Mercer’s survey results I would attribute to the fact #2, as i can still see many parks in an around Bangalore city.

Sir Ebenezer Howard, a native of London introduced ‘garden city’ concept in London in late 19th century. Taking his concept into action there over 1000 of garden cities built in Europe and in united states. See the full list at the of this story.

flower show in Bangalore is conducted twice in a year — in the week of Independence day and in the week of republic day

fact 4: Lotus does NOT mean it is all about Hinduism and India

Most of the Indians believes that lotus is all about India and Hinduism. I was listening to one of the spiritual speech by Sadhguru, Jaggi Vasudev in which he was trying to pitch on ‘Indians’ built Baalbek temple in Lebanon. With all due respect to Sadhguru, I am not quite sure about the logic used. He says that lotus symbol all over the temple proves that it is built by Indians, only things that I agree with him on the fact that, there is no lotus in deserts of Lebanon

Lotus was considered a sacred flower by ancient Egyptians and was used in burial rituals. Egyptians viewed it as a symbol of resurrection and eternal life. Geographical closeness of Egypt and Lebanon forces me to believe that it was brought from Egypt not from India.

Padmini’ is considered to the perfect women, of the 4 classification given by Vatsayana’s Kamasutra The name Padmini come from lotus As per the manuscript, her yoni(vulva) resembles the opening lotus bud and she smells lotus when around.

fact 5: Its a $30 billion industry globally— India is at $230 million growing at a rate of 25%

Global consumption of cut flowers is totaled at a staggering $ 30 billion per year with Europe and North America being the leading markets, where as per National horticulture board of India, the national estimate is over $ 230 million as of 2014.

In 17th Century Holland, Tulip bulbs were more valuable than gold! The flower symbolized immortality, life and love. In 1630’s a kind of frenzy for tulips occurred in Western Europe named “Tulip mania” and tulips became so expensive as to be treated as a form of currency.

Kadupul flower is considered to be most expensive flower in the world estimated to be ‘priceless’. Technically it is a cactus, the Kadupul is found only in Sri Lanka and is without doubt a clear choice for the top of this list. Unbelievably rare, this stunning white flower blossoms at night and survives mere hours, meaning catching even a glimpse of it is next to impossible.

Juliet Rose is second in the list estimated over $ 10 million. On a flower show during the year 2006, the flower’s owner sold it for a huge price after he had grown it for 15 years. Though you get a lot of money in the end but you need to have great patience to grow it.

fact 6: There are over 40 verities of flowers that world eats

Apart from flower banquets, decorations and perfume industry, there is a long list of flowers that are used in various food preparations across the world. These edible all carry lots of medicinal values, other than taste and flavors. Hibiscus— used in famous hibiscus tea Clover— these are sweet with a hint of licorice Yellow dill flowers taste much like the herb’s leaves Who is not aware of Jasminetea Lavender- Sweet, spicy, and perfumed, the flowers are a great addition to both savory and sweet dishesOregano flowers are a pretty, subtle version of the leaf All rosesare edible, with flavor more pronounced in darker varieties. violets, sunflower, squash, sage, rosemary, hollyhock, fuchsia, fennel, daisy,chicory —the list is longer

There are few safety tips around eating flowers fresh from a garden — and the top 3 could be — Eat flowers you know to be consumable Eat flowers you have grown yourself Eat only the petals, and remove pistils and stamens before eating.

fact 7: Dead people receive more flowers than the living ones

I go with Anne Frank’s statement. Our generation has actually forgot about ‘gratitude’ towards anything that is available to us in the world. The simple ‘thank you’ word also has become thankless. We tend to complain more than, celebrate what we have. I have written about this in my older post about happiness index (click here).

I was reading one article on Booker T Washington, it says as a school boy, he used to write in his book everyday that what all things that made him happy on that particular day. It can even as small as ‘some one smiled at him’ He reads it in the following day to get a spirit of ‘moving on’ and face his challenges and hardships.

Gratitude is one of the prime factors make us happy and if we have gratitude for anybody, express it to celebrate it. There is no medal for keeping it within you. Western style of showing the gratitude is ‘gifting flowers’ or any other things. This probably is the only one thing i would want to copy from west. It is most inexpensive way i guess, as a stem of rose goes as low as Rs.10 on off peak days.

In this new era of online shopping, there are many eCommerce providers offers online flower delivery in Bangalore. Just google ‘florists in bangalore’ to see the long list, one of them (bangaloreblooms) even has a smartphone apps for android and iPhone. Kudos to the app developer used by florist the iPhone app that i use as pleasing as a flower bouquet.

Thanks and Regards — Anu Sadasivan

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Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum ) is a very tall tropical grass that can grow as high as 23 ft (7 m) high, most likely derived from wild plants that grew in marshes in India. The stems or canes of this species can be as thick as 2 in (5 cm), and they have a sweet pith that typically contains 20% of a sugar known as sucrose. Sugar concentration varies greatly during the life cycle but is greatest when the cane is flowering, so this is when the harvest typically occurs. Sugarcane is propagated by planting sections of stems with at least one node, known as cuttings.

Sugarcane is grown widely in the subtropics and tropics for example, in southern Florida, Cuba, and Brazil. Most of the harvest is refined into sucrose, or table sugar. Increasingly, however, sugarcane is used to manufacture ethanol as a fuel for vehicles.


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Spore, a reproductive cell capable of developing into a new individual without fusion with another reproductive cell. Spores thus differ from gametes, which are reproductive cells that must fuse in pairs in order to give rise to a new individual. Spores are agents of asexual reproduction, whereas gametes are agents of sexual reproduction. Spores are produced by bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants.

Bacterial spores serve largely as a resting, or dormant, stage in the bacterial life cycle, helping to preserve the bacterium through periods of unfavourable conditions. Spore production is particularly common among Bacillus and Clostridium bacteria, several species of which are disease-causing. Many bacterial spores are highly durable and can germinate even after years of dormancy.

Among the fungi, spores serve a function analogous to that of seeds in plants. Produced and released by specialized fruiting bodies, such as the edible portion of the familiar mushrooms, fungal spores germinate and grow into new individuals under suitable conditions of moisture, temperature, and food availability.

Many larger algae reproduce by spores and are also capable of sexual reproduction. A number of red algae species produce monospores (walled nonflagellate spherical cells) that are carried by water currents and form a new organism upon germination. Some green algae produce nonmotile spores, called aplanospores, whereas others produce motile zoospores, which lack true cell walls and bear one or more flagella. The flagella allow zoospores to swim to a favourable environment in which to develop, whereas monospores and aplanospores must rely on passive transport by water currents.

Among plants—all of which have a life cycle characterized by alternating generations of asexually and sexually reproducing individuals—spores are the reproductive agents of the asexual generation. Produced by the sporophyte (i.e., spore-bearing) generation, plant spores give rise to the haploid gametophyte (i.e., gamete-bearing) generation. Spores are most conspicuous in the non-seed-bearing plants, including liverworts, hornworts, mosses, and ferns. In these lower plants, as in fungi, the spores function much like seeds. In general, the parent plant sheds the spores locally the spore-generating organs are frequently located on the undersides of leaves. The spores of plants that inhabit the edges of bogs or lakes are frequently shed into the water or are carried there by rain and are preserved in the sediments. Wind dispersal is a factor in plants that shed their spores explosively.

Among the seed-bearing plants—the gymnosperms and the angiosperms—the haploid spores are far less conspicuous. They are not released from the parent plant, but rather they germinate into microscopic gametophyte individuals that are entirely dependent upon the diploid sporophyte plant. Gymnosperms and angiosperms form two kinds of spores: microspores, which give rise to male gametophytes, and megaspores, which produce female gametophytes.

Watch the video: Venus Flytrap Propagation: B52 u0026 UK Sawtooth II Flower Stalk Propagation - 6 Month Update - WOW! (December 2022).