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Comprehensive biology or anatomy wordbank

Comprehensive biology or anatomy wordbank


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I teach A&P for bio non majors. I have a special needs student whose accommodation requires a word bank for any anatomy identification questions I have on the exam. I would like to present the student with a 'master wordbank' (presumably hundreds of words in length) that would act as a word bank for all the exams in the course. I'm surprised to be unable to find much of anything online. Has anyone seen something like this?


So I found a good list. Behold: wikipedia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_biology


You may want to look at some biological terminologies or ontologies. These can be browsed online using portals like the OLS or Bioportal. You can restrict your search to particular domains or sources, such as the FMA for adult human anatomy and Uberon for general metazoan and comparative anatomy. This may be overkill for your purposes, as these ontologies are intended for computational applications rather than as an educational reference source. For example, terms are linked to other terms via different relationship types. However, this extra information may turn out to be useful, and the developers of these ontologies may be interested in helping with educational use cases (I am the developer of Uberon and this is something I am interested in).

If you wanted to extract a table of terms from one of these, perhaps restricted to a domain (e.g. human muscles) then this may be possible with a bit of work with some of the online interfaces, or it's something that could be done by someone with programmatic skills. Someone on bioinformatics.stackechange.com could help with that task. Many of these are available via open and unrestrictive licenses so there should be no legal issue here.


Ornithology: Comprehensive Bird Biology, from the Cornell Lab, will deepen your understanding of birds and help you master everything from anatomy and behavior to ecology and conservation. World-wide in scope, the experience will broaden your bird knowledge and give you a strong foundation in all things avian. You will be following in the footsteps of thousands of others who have transformed their perspective on birds with the predecessor to this course, The Home Study Course in Bird Biology, over its forty year history. Designed for those interested in learning college-level ornithology at your own pace, from anywhere, without the college credit price tag.

This course steps you through each chapter from the textbook. Lessons contain a short video from your instructors introducing key insights and curated collections of online resources to expand your knowledge base. Exams are divided up into individual quizzes that take 15-20 minutes to complete and provide immediate feedback to correct misconceptions and reinforce important facts. An expanded online glossary helps you learn how to express yourself like an ornithologist. You will also have the opportunity to have your questions answered by course instructors.

Dr. Kevin McGowan, Instructor

Kevin combines deep knowledge about birds with passion for helping others to learn. He is the Project Manager of Distance Learning in Bird Biology, and the instructor and author of many of Bird Academy’s online courses including the Be a Better Birder series. He has worked at Cornell University since 1988 and is one of the world’s foremost experts on the behavior of crows. He helped create the Cornell Lab’s All About Birds web site and wrote the original bird guide section.

Dr. Sarah Wagner

After majoring in Environmental Education at Earlham College, Sarah spent a few years working on a variety of bird research projects before starting a PhD at the University of Colorado, Boulder. There, she studied the foraging behavior of Australian Honeyeaters to explore how a species’ natural history can be used to inform their conservation. During her graduate career, she taught a variety of college level courses and thoroughly enjoys combining outreach and research.


BIOLOGY WORD BANK

Kinases are responsible for attaching phosphate groups to proteins, thereby activating or deactivating them, depending on the protein.

A. norepinephrine
B. epinephrine.
C. acetylcholine.
D. cholinesterase.
E. amylase

A. energy transfer leads to less organization.
B. a system that is isolated from any energy source increases in entropy.
C. evolution is possible through the absorption of energy.
D. energy is balanced by living organisms.
E. total energy in an isolated system remains constant.

A. produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
B. found surrounding all vertebral axons.
C. produced by the fusion of many lamellae of plasma membranes.
D. mostly lipid in composition.
E. used to increase the speed of an action potential.

The myelin sheath is an insulatory system composed of Schwann cells. A Schwann cell grabs on to a segment of axon and wraps itself around several times. The membrane fuses and forms distinct layers called lamellae. This layering effectively multiplies the the thickness of the axonal lipid membrane, preventing ions (and everything else for that matter) from entering and leaving the axon. The myelin sheath only surrounds certain axons, but not all of them, thus choice B is wrong and is the correct choice for the this question.

I. friction between blood and blood vessel walls.
II. the increase in total cross-sectional area.
III arteriosclerosis (artery plaque accumulation).

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and II
D. II and III
E. I, II, and III

Statements I and II are factual. The process of slowing down blood flow or velocity results in a decrease in blood pressure. The reduction in speed is accomplished in two ways. First, the small diameter of each of the capillaries is not much larger than the diameter of the red blood cells that pass through them in single file. This results in the friction described in statement I. Secondly, because arterioles branch into so many capillaries, the total cross sectional area of the capillaries is much greater than that of the arterioles. Thus they have a much greater capacity for blood. The effect is similar to what happens when a fast flowing river divides into many smaller rivulets. The flow of water in the rivulets is much slower than the flow of water in the river, but the large number of rivulets make it possible to accommodate all the water.

A. active transfport.
B. passive diffusion.
C. pinocytosis.
D. phagocytosis.
E. facilitated diffusion.

A. Nuclear-to-cytoplasmic-material ratio
B. Surface-to-volume ratio of each cell
C. Nutrient and gas exchange
D. Cell size
E. Number of cells

Stop: The answer choices reflect characteristics of rapidly dividing cells.

Think: During early embryonic development, cells undergo a series of rapid mitotic divisions referred to as cleavage. These divisions increase the number of cells present without a corresponding increase in the cytoplasm of the cells. As a result, the number of cells increases, but the cells become smaller with each division.

Predict: Since the amount of cytoplasm in the group of cells does not change with these rapid divisions, the volume of the cells decreases, increasing the surface-to-volume ration and therefore the amount of nutrient and gas exchange that each cell an participate in. It also increases the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, not because the amount of nuclear material is changing, but because the amount of cytoplasmic material present in each cell continues to decrease while the amount of nuclear material remains relatively consistent between cells.

A. NAD+ is reduced to NADH.
B. the final product is acetyl coenzyme A.
C. oxygen is required for maximal ATP production.
D. there is a net production of 4 ATP per glucose molecule.
E. fructose -1,6-bisphosphate is converted into acetyl coenzyme A.

Glycolysis is an anaerobic series of reactions that occurs in the cytoplasm that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate. The electrons removed during the process are used to reduce NAD+ to NADH. The electrons from NADH (if oxygen is available) will be donated to the electron transport chain to promote ATP synthesis. Each NADH will yield 2 ATP, as opposed to the NADH synthesized during the Krebs cycle, which yield 3 ATP.

(B) Choice B is incorrect because the final product of glycolysis is pyruvate, not acetyl Coenzyme A. Acetyl-CoA is the molecule inserted into the Krebs cycle.

(C) Choice C is incorrect because glycolysis does not require oxygen (it is anaerobic). The ATP synthesized during glycolysis occurs via substrate level phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation requires oxygen for ATP synthesis.

(D) Choice D is incorrect because there is a net production of 2 ATP per glucose molecule. Glycolysis yields 4 ATP, however it cost 2 ATP to get the process going. The net is therefore 4 - 2 = 2 ATP.


Meet the Course Instructors

Course instructor Kevin McGowan combines deep knowledge about birds with a passion for helping others learn. He is a professional ornithologist at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and one of the world’s foremost experts on the behavior of crows. Kevin is also an accomplished birder and World Series of Birding champion. Among his contributions to Bird Academy, he created the popular Be a Better Birder series of courses and live webinars and co-authored the university-level Ornithology: Comprehensive Bird Biology course.

Dr. Sarah Wagner is a course developer for the Cornell Lab’s Bird Academy. An accomplished field researcher specializing in feeding biology of birds, Sarah has worked all over the continent and has years of professional experience identifying birds by ear. She is co-author of the Cornell Lab’s university-level online Ornithology course and a public educator in the Lab’s visitor center.


Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy

UC Davis, the third largest of the 10 campus UC System, is now ranked among the top 10 public universities in the nation. UC Davis includes the main campus in Davis, and the UC Davis Health campus in Sacramento, which includes the School of Medicine. Our department is one of the 6 basic science departments in the School of Medicine. While the UC Davis Health clinical and educational facilities are located on the Sacramento campus, the UC Davis Health research mission has a presence on both campuses, with the basic science departments located on the Davis campus. This arrangement places us in a great position to bridge the research missions of the UC Davis Health, with that of the main campus, which is home to one of the largest biological science faculties in the nation, and which includes both the College of Biological Sciences and School of Veterinary Medicine.

As part of an overall strategy of building its research strength, the School of Medicine committed to renovation and expansion of its basic research mission. As a result, UC Davis Medical School has had the fastest growth in basic research funding of all US medical schools for several years running, having moved from a ranking of 62nd to 26th since 2001. We recently completed renovation of 19,000 square feet of research space, and the hiring of 6 new FTE faculty. In addition we created space within the department to house faculty from clinical departments to enrich the research environment and build programmatic strength. The Department, while among the smallest in the nation, is ranked 14th for extramural research funding among cell biology and Anatomy Departments. Our growth is occurring in parallel with the expansion and renovation of several of the biological science units on campus, and in the UC Davis Health, creating an environment rich in opportunity for creative young scientists motivated to take advantage of a wealth of collaborative opportunities.

School of Medicine lab recognized for safety

The Burns-Pugh lab, which researches neurodegenerative diseases of the eye, is one of six winners in the inaugural Laboratory Safety Awards program from UC Davis Safety Services.

The awards panel chose a winner from each of the university&rsquos four colleges and the School of Medicine and School of Veterinary Medicine.

To see what the culture of safety looks like in the Burns-Pugh lab, show up on a Friday &ndash and be prepared to watch 10 people go into action. Those who work with Principal Investigators Marie Burns and Edward Pugh, studying photoreceptors of the retina, pause what they&rsquore doing once a week for &ldquoFriday Frenzy&rdquo mode.

A comprehensive study on the structure of the vimentin protein

The Voss lab, together with the FitzGerald lab of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, published a comprehensive study on the structure of the vimentin protein. The article, &ldquoCompletion of the vimentin rod domain structure using experimental restraints: a new tool for exploring Intermediate Filament assembly and mutations&rdquo appeared August 8th in Cell: Structure. The work includes description of vimentin&rsquos linker 1-2 region, which has thus far eluded structural determination. The Voss and FitzGerald groups used a combination of EPR spectroscopy and molecular modeling to describe linker 1-2 and unite the separate elements of the vimentin rod domain into a single experimentally-based model.

UC Davis doctors help Haitian residents, physicians years after quake

The devastating earthquake that hit Haiti in 2010 left the Caribbean country in ruin. More than 230,000 people died, and millions were injured and without homes. Today, thousands of residents still live in unsanitary, unsafe conditions. To help this vulnerable population, UC Davis Children&rsquos Hospital physicians travel to Haiti to provide care and training.

Departmental faculty member and pediatrician Douglas S. Gross, M.D., Ph.D., served on a federal disaster medical assistance team that was deployed shortly after the earthquake. The trip inspired him to create the UC Haiti Initiative, an educational, research and public service partnership between each University of California campus and the State University of Haiti.

In Memorium: Robert L hunter, PhD. June 29, 1921-March 4, 2019, founding faculty member of the U.C. Davis School of Medicine, and Chair of the Department of Anatomy.

Robert Hunter, age 97, a longtime resident of Davis and professor emeritus at the UC Davis School of Medicine, passed away March 4.

Born and raised in Delaware, Ohio, he received his bachelor&rsquos and master&rsquos degrees from Ohio Wesleyan University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in zoology with an emphasis in histology and embryology. During World War II he served in the Army Medical Corp in England.

Subject: [cvnet] 2015 Verriest Medal awarded to Professor John S. Werner

The International Colour Vision Society (ICVS) is pleased to announce that the 2015 Verriest Medal will be awarded to Professor John S. Werner at the 23nd Biennial ICVS Symposium to take place in Sendai, Japan, July 3rd-7th, 2015. This award was established in 1991 in memory of the founding member of the Society, Dr. Guy Verriest, and honors outstanding contributions in the field of color vision.

Professor Werner received his Ph.D. from Brown University under the supervision of Professor Billy Wooten in the Walter S. Hunter Laboratory of Psychology. He conducted postdoctoral research with Professor Jan Walraven at the Institute for Perception &ndash TNO in Soesterberg, The Netherlands. He was a member of the Psychology faculty at the University of Colorado, Boulder and is presently a Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology at the University of California Davis where also holds appointments in Vision Science, and Neurobiology, Physiology & Behavior.

An active member of ICVS and of it predecessor, IRGCVD, he is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Psychological Association, American Psychological Society, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, the Gerontological Society of America and the Optical Society of America. He received the Pisart Vision Award from Lighthouse International and he presented the University of Colorado, Boulder distinguished research lecture and the Optical Society of America Robert M. Boynton lecture.

He has made important contributions to our knowledge of the development and aging of color mechanisms using psychophysics, VEP's and most recently optical imaging techniques, OCT and adaptive optics. He has contributed to our understanding of the processes of aging in perception particularly as they relate to plasticity and potential clinical applications. Throughout his career he has maintained an active interest in opponent color mechanisms, color in art and color illusions.

A generation of vision scientists has enjoyed the benefits of reading the many books he has coedited. These include, Visual Perception: The Neurophysiological Foundations, Color Vision: Perspectives from Different Disciplines, The Visual Neurosciences , and The New Visual Neurosciences, which like Professor Werner&rsquos own research have brought together discoveries from anatomy, physiology and psychophysics to illuminate fundamental mechanisms underlying human perception.


Comprehensive biology or anatomy wordbank - Biology

The integument as an organ: The integument as an organ, and is an alternative name for skin. The integumentary system includes the skin and the skin derivatives hair, nails, and glands. The integument is the body’s largest organ and accounts for 15% of body weight.

The derivatives of the integument:

Hair: functions include protection & sensing light touch.
Hair is composed of columns of dead, keratinized cells bound together by extracellular proteins. Hair has two main sections: The shaft- superficial portion that extends out of the skin and the root- portion that penetrates into the dermis. Surrounding the root of the hair is the hair follicle. At the base of the hair follicle is an onion-shaped structure called the bulb Papilla of the hair and the matrix within the bulb produce new hair.

Nails: participate in the grasp & handling of small things.
Nails are plates of tightly packed, hard, keratinized epidermal cells.

  • nail root: -the portion of the nail under the skin,
  • nail body: -the visible pink portion of the nail, the white crescent at the base of the nail is the lunula, the hyponychium secures the nail to the finger, the cuticle or eponychium is a narrow band around the proximal edge of the nail and
  • free edge: -the white end that may extend past the finger.
  • Sebaceous - Oil glands. Located in the dermis, and secrete sebum.
  • Sudoriferous - Sweat glands. Divided into two main types:
    • Eccrine - Most common, main function is regulation of body temperature by evaporation, and
    • Apocrine - Responsible for “cold sweat” associated with stress.
    • Thermoregulation - Evaporation of sweat & Regulation of blood flow to the dermis.
      Cutaneous sensation - Sensations like touch, pressure, vibration, pain, warmth or coolness.
    • Vitamin D production - UV sunlight & precursor molecule in skin make vitamin D.
    • Protection – The sin acts as a physical barrier.
    • Absorption & secretion – The skin is involved in the absorption of water-soluble molecules and excretion of water and sweat.
    • Wound healing - When a minor burn or abrasion occurs basal cells of the epidermis break away from the basement membrane and migrate across the wound. They migrate as a sheet, when the sides meet the growth stops and this is called ‘contact inhibition’.
    • In deep wound healing - A clot forms in the wound, blood flow increases and many cells move to the wound. The clot becomes a scab granulation tissue fills the wound and intense growth of epithelial cells beneath the scab. The scab falls off and the skin returns to normal thickness.

    Epidermis – The Epidermis is the thinner more superficial layer of the skin.
    The epidermis is made up of 4 cell types:

    • (A) Keratinocytes – Produce keratin protein a fibrous protein that helps protect the epidermis
    • (B) Melanocytes - produces the brown pigment melanin
    • (C) Langerhan Cells – participate in immune response and
    • (D) Merkel cells - participates in the sense of touch.
    1. Stratum corneum: the outermost layer, made of 25-30 layers of dead flat keratinocytes. Lamellar granules provide water repellent action and are continuously shed & replaced.
    2. Stratum lucidum: Only found in the fingertips, palms of hands, & soles of feet. This layer is made up of 3-5 layers of flat dead keratinocytes.
    3. Stratum granulosum: made up of 3-5 layers of keratinocytes, site of keratin formation, keratohyalin gives the granular appearance.
    4. Stratum spinosum: appears covered in thornlike spikes, provide strength & flexibility to the skin.
    5. Stratum basale: The deepest layer, made up of a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells. Cells produced here are constantly divide & move up to apical surface.

    Dermis: is the deeper, thicker layer composed of connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, glands and hair follicles.

    • The epidermis contains 3 cell types:
      • Adipocytes,
      • Macrophages and
      • Fibroblasts.
      • Papillary region - The superficial layer of the dermis, made up of loose areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers.
      • Dermal papillae - Fingerlike structures invade the epidermis, contain capillaries or Meissner corpuscles which respond to touch.

      This tutorial describes the integumentary system including the skin, hair, nails and glands. The two layers of the skin and their functions are also discussed.

      The integument is an organ that is involved in protection and barrier function. The integument is also involved in regulating body heat and blood pressure.

      Specific Tutorial Features:

      • Step by step description of the various layers of the epidermis and the dermis.
      • The relationship between the various layers of skin and the hair, nails and glands are discussed.
      • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
      • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
      • Visual representation of concepts
      • Examples given throughout to illustrate how the concepts apply.
      • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

      The integument as an organ:

      • The two layers of the integument (skin)
      • The derivatives of the integument
        • Hair
        • Nails
        • Glands
        • Thermoregulation
        • Cutaneous sensation
        • Vitamin D production
        • Protection
        • Absorption & secretion
          Wound healing

        See all 24 lessons in Anatomy and Physiology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets: Teach Yourself Anatomy and Physiology Visually in 24 Hours


        Outline-1, BIO 2320, Endocrine System

        a. Inhibiting/releasing hormones (GnRH Gondadotropin releasing hormone, TRH Thyrotropin releasing hormone, PIF Prolactin inhibiting factor, CRF Corticotropin releasing factor, Somatostatin Growth hormone inhibiting hormone)

        Negative feedback mechanisms prevail

        4. Neurohypophysis

        Posterior lobe of pituitary gland

        a. Infundibulum (Hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract)

        b. ADH (vasopressin) – Antidiuretic hormonecauses water reabsorption from kidney to bloodstream

        c. Oxytocin

        Uterine contractions for childbirth and milk letdown

        F. Thyroid Gland

        2. Histology (follicle cells, colloid)

        b. T4 (thyroxine) 90%

        c. T3(triiodothyronine) 10%

        d. TBG – Most thyroid hormones are carried in plasma bound to thyroid binding globulin

        e. Regulates metabolic rate

        TSH, TRH, negative feedback

        4. Calcitonin

        a. Parafollicular = C cells

        If blood calcium levels are high, Calcitonin is secreted

        G. Parathyroid glands

        4 – embedded in posterior surface of thyroid gland

        2. PTH (=Parathormone)function (increases Ca decreases P)

        If blood calcium levels are low, PTH is secreted

        H. Adrenal gland

        2. Adrenal medulla – Inner portion

        b. Epinephrine(80%), Norepinephrine (20%)

        c. Action (glucose, ht, bl. vessels, bl. pressure, airways)

        d. Release (Pregang. neurons, excitement, injury)

        3. Adrenal cortex – Outer portion

        a. Mineralocorticoids

        1. Zona glomerulosa – Outermost layer

        2. Aldosterone(90%)

        3. Na reabsorption, K excretion – In kidneys

        a. Renin/Angiotensinogen

        Renin is an enzyme made by the kidneys in response to low blood pressure. It causes inactive angiotensinogen to activate into Angiotensin, which stimulates Aldosterone release.

        b. Glucocorticoids

        1. Zona fasciculata – Very thick middle layer

        2. Conserves & supplements energy

        c. Sex hormones

        1. Zona reticularis – Innermost layer

        I. Pancreas

        Behind stomach and along duodenum (first part of small intestine)

        3. Pancreatic islets (of Langerhans) – ENDOCRINE portion

        4. Insulin(beta cells, lowers blood glucose)

        5. Glucagon(alpha cells, raises blood glucose)

        6. Somatostatin(delta cells, inhibits growth hormone release)

        b. GI hormones – meals/between meals

        Testes make androgens to be discussed later, Ovaries make estrogens and progesterones to be discussed later.

        K. Pineal gland

        Roof of third ventricle in brain

        2. Melatonin(decreases repro. activity)

        Within mediastinum above heart

        Decreases in size as we mature

        Thymic hormone stimulates T cells after they leave the thymus


        Courses

        Visit the undergraduate and graduate pages for course requirements for specific programs. For up-to-date information on course offerings, schedules, room locations and registration, please visit the Student Information System (SIS).

        Undergraduate Courses

        Bio 001 Environment Preservation and Improvement. Cross-listed as ENV 91
        Seminar based on current readings from environmental journals that provide insight into environmental science for use by scientists, science media, business leaders, and political decision makers. Topic areas include biodiversity and wildlife, alternative energy, ocean protection, climate shift, urban ecology, sustainable agriculture, GIS and remote imagery.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 004 Gross Anatomy. Cross-listed as OTS 102
        A systemic approach to human anatomy, including the skeletal, muscular, respiratory, digestive, genital, urinary, and nervous systems. Detailed study of the upper and lower extremities, emphasizing normal function. Laboratory sessions weekly.
        Prerequisites: Any college biology course.
        Typically Offered: Fall, Summer

        Bio 005 Neuroanatomy. Cross-listed as OTS 103
        The structure and basic function of the nervous system: both central and peripheral nerves analyzed as to functional components, course, and action. Basic tracts of the central nervous system outlined and traced. Laboratory sessions weekly.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 006 Big Bang to Humankind. Cross-listed as CHEM 6 and AST 6
        An exploration of the origins of the Universe, the formation of Earth and its structure, the chemistry of life, the development of complex organisms, and the development of modern humans including evidence for the various ideas presented, the scientific method used by scientists, and how the community of scientists evaluate the evidence. This course does not fulfill pre-med requirements for a lab-based chemistry course.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 007 Environmental Biology. Cross-listed as ENV 7
        An examination of major natural and created ecosystems and human influences on them. Biological bases for species distributions, human population size, and conservation. Ecological bases for sound land use and pollution abatement.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 008 Microbiology of Food.
        Systems-based approach to how microbes play critical roles in the production, processing, and consumption of foods. Tools that microbiologists are using to study the microbiology of food systems basic principles of microbial diversity, ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics using a farm-to-gut approach. Equal attention to beneficial microbes as well as the historical and contemporary impacts of pathogens. Guest lectures from farmers, chefs, and local food producers and in-class demonstrations and tastings.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 010 Plants and Humanity. Cross-listed as ENV 10
        Principles of botany accenting economic aspects and multicultural implications of plants, their medicinal products, crop potential, and biodiversity. Emphasis placed on global aspects of this dynamic science, with selected topics on acid rain, deforestation, biotechnology, and other applications. Also covered are medicinal, poisonous, and psychoactive species, as well as nutritional sources from seaweeds and mushrooms to mangos and durians.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 011 Kinesiology. Cross-listed as Occupational Therapy 104
        Introduction to normal human movement. The basic anatomical, physiological, and biomechanical principles that underpin normal movement and function. Includes the assessment of muscle and joint function through manual muscle testing and goniometry. Emphasis on the biomechanics of everyday activities.
        Typically Offered: Summer

        Bio 012 Evolution in Our World.
        Designed for non-biology majors, explores the diversity of life on our planet, how that diversity came about, and how human actions are causing changes for the future. The evidence for evolutionary change the mechanisms through which such changes occur and the ways in which pollution, ocean acidification, and climate change are subjecting all organisms to a new range of selective pressures. Applications of evolutionary thinking to biomedical research.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 013 Cells and Organisms with Lab.
        An introductory course primarily for prospective biology majors. General biological principles and widely used methods related to current advances in cell and molecular biology, genetics, immunology, plant and biomedical sciences. Two lectures and one laboratory each week. Credit cannot be received for both BIO 13 and ES 11.
        Recommendations: Advanced high-school chemistry and biology recommended.
        Typically Offered: Fall, Summer

        Bio 014 Organisms and Population with Lab.
        Forms a logical sequel to BIO 13. Selected topics in animal and plant physiology, development, genetics, and population biology, with emphasis on evolutionary mechanisms. Two lectures and one laboratory each week.
        Recommendations: BIO 13 strongly recommended.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 040 Bioinformatics. Cross-listed as COMP 7
        A hands-on introductory course in bioinformatics for students with little or no computer science background. Basic programming skills for data manipulation and analysis. Methods and applications of online tools for sequence alignment, molecular phylogeny, gene expression data analysis, and linking molecular variation to disease. Counts towards the laboratory requirement for the biology major. (Group Q)
        Prerequisites: BIO 41 or BME 62 or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 041 General Genetics.
        Basic concepts of classical and molecular genetics, including Mendelian genetics, genetic mapping, the genetic code, gene transcription and translation, regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, genomics, and human chromosomal abnormalities. Two lectures.
        Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13 or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 044 Primate Social Behavior. Cross-listed as ANTH 44
        Introduction to social lives of primates. Uses experimental and observational studies to teach students how to understand and engage with scientific literature and method. Covers ecological, physiological, and developmental bases of primate social behavior, with attention to evolution of social interactions among individuals of different age, sex, relatedness, and status. Topics include competition and cooperation, dominance and territoriality, sex and mating, parenting, cognition and conservation. Includes a weekly lab where students will learn primatological methods. No pre-requisites. (Group C)
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 046 Cell Biology.
        Basic concepts of cellular organization, function, and regulation. Emphasis on molecular/biochemical research methods used in the study of protein structure and function, gene expression and regulation, signal transduction, intracellular transport, and cell communication. (Group A)
        Prerequisites: BIO 0013 or permission of instructor.
        Recommendations: Completion or co-enrollment in BIO 41.
        Typically Offered: Spring, Summer

        Bio 049 Experiments in Physiology.
        Experimental investigations of several problems in physiology using a wide variety of modern techniques. Classes will concentrate on several biological concepts and emphasize appropriate experimental design, data collection, data analysis and presentation. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period.
        Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 14 or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 050 Experiments in Molecular Biology.
        Investigation of series of laboratory problems using modern techniques of biotechnology. Gene cloning, recombinant protein expression, protein biochemistry, and immunochemistry are emphasized for teaching state-of-the-art laboratory skills and for reinforcing basic concepts of modern molecular biology. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period.
        Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13 or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 051 Experiments in Ecology. Cross-listed as ENV 51
        An introduction to field research in different habitats. Emphasis on acquiring skills in taxonomic identification, sampling techniques, hypothesis testing and experimental design, data analysis and interpretation, as well as oral and written communication. Opportunity for student-designed group research projects on ecological questions. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period.
        Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 14 or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 052 Experiments in Cell Biology.
        The field of Cell Biology focuses on examining cells and the behaviors they perform. This course will introduce students to the investigation of several laboratory problems using standard techniques of cell biology examining diverse organisms, ranging from single cells to intact animals. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period.
        Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13 or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 054 Molecular Genetics Projects Lab.
        A discovery-based research experience in the field of molecular genetics, taught at the introductory level. Students will each carry out a related independent research project using modern techniques in genetics and molecular biology to discover gene function, identify proteins that play a role in maintaining genome stability, and develop testable hypotheses. Techniques used will include genetic assays, PCR, gene knockouts, and phenotype analysis.
        Prerequisites: BIO 13. Genetics prior to or concurrent with taking the course is suggested but not required. The course is appropriate for sophomores and juniors with no prior laboratory experience.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 055 Microbiome Research Lab.
        Concepts and techniques in microbiome science through independent research projects. Designing and conducting experiments to characterize microbiome diversity, identify processes that control microbiome composition, and quantify functional roles of microbiomes. Principles of experimental design, microbial genomics and metagenomics, microbiome data management and analysis, in vitro microbiome reconstruction, experimental evolution, microbial trait analysis, and microbial genetic screens.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 061 Biology of Aging.
        An introduction to concepts relevant to the biology of aging. Focus on molecular, cellular, and physiological changes that occur during the aging process in humans and other organisms. Major topics include theories of aging, genetic regulation of longevity in model systems, and therapeutic modulation of the aging process. (Group A)
        Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14 or their equivalent, or consent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 062 Molecular Biotechnology. Cross-listed as ChBE 62 and BME 02
        Overview of key aspects of molecular biology and engineering aspects of biotechnology. Lecture topics include molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, immunology, cell biology, protein purification, fermentation, cell culture, combinatorial methods, and bioinformatics. May be taken at the 100-level with consent. (Group A)
        Prerequisites: Consent
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 075 Comparative Vertebrate Physiology.
        A comparative study of vertebrate function. Physiology of selected systems, including digestion, circulation, excretion, respiration, and temperature regulation. Emphasis on physiological adaptations to the environment. Three lectures. (Group B)
        Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14. One year of chemistry recommended.
        Typically Offered: TBD

        Bio 093/094 Introduction to Research.
        At least ten hours per week of guided laboratory research, generally including one hour of consultation or seminar with research supervisor and a paper. Details of individual project to be worked out with the supervisor. Gives students an opportunity to participate in biological research on the Tufts Medford/Somerville and Boston campuses. Does not satisfy laboratory or course requirement for the major in biology. May be counted as credit toward degree only. Students typically initiate independent research in their sophomore or junior years. Pass/fail grading.
        Recommendations: Permission of research mentor and subsequently course coordinator.
        Typically Offered: Bio 93-Spring, Bio 94- Fall

        Undergraduate and Graduate Courses

        Bio 103 Developmental Biology.
        Basic concepts of developmental biology with emphasis on the molecular events underlying the morphological changes that occur during development. Examples will be drawn from a number of phyla to illustrate developmental mechanisms, e.g., gametogenesis, cleavage, organogenesis and determination, cell-cell interactions, induction, and programs of gene activation. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 41 or BIO 46.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 104 Immunology.
        Concepts of modern immunology and their importance in biology. Topics include humoral and cellular immune responses, antibody structure and biosynthesis, antigen-antibody interactions, cellular immunology, immunological tolerance, autoimmunity, and tumor immunology. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 41.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 105 Molecular Biology.
        Gene structure and function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, fundamentals of recombinant DNA technology. Molecular mechanisms of DNA replication and repair, recombination, transcription, and protein synthesis are emphasized. Advanced topics including regulation of gene expression during development, transposition, and regulation of chromatin structure are based on current literature. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 41.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 106 Microbiology Lecture.
        A survey of the structures and functions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotic microbes (fungi, protists). Topics include microbial genetics, physiology, cell biology, diversity, evolution, ecology, and the human microbiome. BIO 107 (Microbiology Lab) is not required but may be taken concurrently. (Group A or C)
        Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13, BIO 14, and BIO 41 or graduate standing.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 107 Microbiology Lab.
        Examination of microbial diversity and function using laboratory techniques to isolate, identify, and manipulate microbes. Introduction to microscopy, sterile technique, microbial cell culture, microbial physiology, sequence-based microbial identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. One laboratory session per week. Must be taken concurrently with BIO 106 (Microbiology Lecture).
        Prerequisites: BIO 13, BIO 14, and BIO 41, or graduate standing.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 108 Plant Development. Cross-listed as ENV 108
        Structural and physiological aspects of plant development. Genetic and environmental influences on development as these pertain to germination, root and shoot growth, and plant sexuality and flowering. Information on corn, bean, and tobacco systems will be extended to diverse groups such as cacti, ferns, bromelaids, water plants, parasitic and carnivorous plants. (Group B)
        Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 110 Endocrinology.
        A comprehensive introduction to the chemical and physiological principle of hormonal integration in animals. Topics include endocrine regulation of metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, neural functions, mineral and water balance, behavior, and nutrition. (Group B)
        Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 115 General Physiology.
        Elements of homeostasis, circulation, respiration, and excretion are discussed at various levels, from the molecular to the organ system. (Group B)
        Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 116 General Physiology II.
        Elements of homeostasis and of endocrine, nervous, and digestive systems are discussed at various levels, from the molecular to the organ system. Material will include lessons from and comparisons across vertebrates and invertebrates. (Group B)
        Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 117 Physiology of Movement.
        Introduction to the physiological basis of human and animal movement. Topics include biomechanics, kinesiology, muscle and bone physiology, biological materials, and locomotion. (Group B or Q)
        Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14 or equivalent required. Physics 1 and Math 32 will be helpful, but not required.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 118 Plant Physiology.
        Interaction of living plant components performing biological functions including water transport, mineral uptake, movements, and signaling between plant parts in response to environmental cues. (Group B)
        Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent. Introductory chemistry recommended.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 119 Biophysics. Cross-listed as PHY 25, BME 25 and BME 125
        Presentation at an introductory level of selected topics in physics relevant to modern medicine and biology. Development of topics to the point of application to biomedical problems. Topics drawn from acoustics, physics of fluids, diffusion, laser physics, and other subjects varying from year to year. Offered alternate years. (Group Q)
        Recommendations: PHY 1, 2, or 11, 12 or permission of instructor.
        Corequisites: MATH 42 (formerly MATH 13).
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 130 Animal Behavior. Cross-listed as ENV 130
        An examination of ethological theory: the development of behavior, orientation, migration, communication, and social behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on the functioning of animal societies. (Group C)
        Recommendations: BIO 13 or 14, or equivalent or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 131 Principles of Medical Imaging. Cross-listed as BME 131 and EE 131
        This interdisciplinary course presents the principles of medical imaging techniques such as diagnostic ultrasound, radiography, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For each imaging modality, topics include the physical principles, key aspects of instrumentation design, mathematical methods, and the anatomical/physiological information content of the images. Representative medical images will be discussed and interpreted. This course cannot be taken for basic science requirement for engineering students.
        Recommendations: MATH 32 (formerly MATH 11), PHY 2 or 12, or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 132 Biostatistics.
        An examination of statistical methods for designing, analyzing, and interpreting biological experiments and observations. Topics include probability, parameter estimation, inference, correlation, regression, analysis of variance, and nonparametric methods. (Group Q)
        Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent, plus one additional biology course above BIO 14.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 133 Ecological Statistics and Data w/Lab.
        Probability and likelihood, fitting simple statistical models to data, and using these models to make predictions. Examples come from ecology, emphasis on monitoring plant and animal populations and forecasting how these populations will respond to changing environments. Includes use of discrete probability distributions (binomial and Poisson), building mixed and compounded probability distributions, an introduction to Bayesian statistics, and use of the open-source statistics program, R. Students should have a good working knowledge of high school algebra and an interest in ecology. (Group C or Q)
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 134 Neurobiology.
        Biology of nervous systems. From the biophysical basis of neuronal function, through synaptic interactions and signal processing in neural circuits, to behavior, learning, and memory. Examples from both vertebrates and invertebrates. (Group B)
        Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, plus one Group A course in biology or PSY 103.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 142 Population and Community Ecology. Cross-listed as ENV 142
        Introduction to population dynamics (population structure and growth), species interactions (predator-prey, competition, mutualism), and community structure (adaptations to the physical environment, patterns and processes governing the world’s biomes). (Group C)
        Prerequisites: BIO 14 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 143 Evolutionary Biology w/lab. Cross-listed as ENV 143
        Examines hypotheses for patterns of biological diversity and for the apparent good fit of organisms to the environment. Topics include the genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary change, processes at the population level, the theory of evolution by natural selection, concepts of fitness and adaptation, rates and long-term trends in evolution, extinction, biogeographical patterns, determinants of conflict and cooperation, the evolution of sex and life history, modes of speciation, and coevolutionary dynamics. The laboratory will familiarize students with evolutionary genetics methods. Topics include genotype-phenotype relationships, DNA sequence assembly and alignment, gene and gene pathway function, estimation of population demography and phylogenetic relationships, and hypothesis testing. (Group A, C, or Q)
        Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 144 Principles of Conservation Biology. Cross-listed as ENV 144
        Learning and application of principles from population ecology, population genetics, and community ecology to the conservation of species and ecosystems. Focus on rare and endangered species, as well as threatened ecosystems. Includes applications from animal behavior, captive breeding, and wildlife management. Readings from current texts and primary literature. (Group C)
        Recommendations: BIO 14 or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 151 Mathematical Neuroscience. Cross listed as MATH 151
        Mathematical and computational study of systems of differential equations modeling nerve cells (equilibria, limit cycles, bifurcations), neuronal networks (intrinsic rhythmic synchronization, entrainment by external inputs), and learning (synaptic plasticity), and of the potential function of rhythmic synchrony for signaling among neuronal networks and for plasticity. (Group Q)
        Prerequisites: Math 51 or instructor’s consent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 152 Biochemistry and Cell Metabolism.
        An in-depth examination of the structure and function of biomolecules: chemical and physical properties of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids enzyme kinetics and mechanisms metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids and the metabolic relationships of organ systems. (Group A)
        Prerequisites: BIO 13 and CHEM 51 & 53 or equivalent
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 162 Molecular Biotechnology. Cross-listed as BME 162 and CHBE 162
        Overview of key aspects of molecular biology and engineering aspects of biotechnology. Lecture topics include molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, immunology, cell biology, protein purification, fermentation, cell culture, combinatorial methods, bioethics, and bioinformatics with review and discussion of primary literature. Comprehensive technical paper on an emerging topic. Students may not receive credit for both BME162 and BME 33. (Group A)
        Recommendations: CHEM 1, BIO 13 or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Summer

        Bio 163 Recombinant DNA Techniques. Cross-listed as CHBE163 and BME 163
        This lecture and laboratory course is designed to familiarize the student with methods employed to produce recombinant products. The lectures cover fundamental aspects of the recombinant DNA methodologies used in the laboratory as well as some commercial applications of the techniques. The laboratory provides hands-on experience with the key skills used in genetic engineering including DNA isolation, restriction enzyme mapping, cloning and selection, protein expression, gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and related techniques. Cannot be taken for credit if BIO 50 is taken for credit. (Group A)
        Recommendations: CHEM 1, BIO 13, or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Summer

        Bio 164 Marine Biology. Cross-listed as ENV 164
        An intermediate-level introduction to the biology of marine organisms. Detailed survey of major marine animal and plant groups food web dynamics physiological and ecological adaptations to key marine habitats, including the deep sea, coral reefs, estuaries, and the intertidal zone. The impact of global warming, ocean acidification, and overfishing on marine communities and fisheries. (Group C)
        Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 168 Biotechnology Processing Projects Lab. Cross-listed as BME 168 and CHBE 168
        Laboratory experience with techniques in biotechnology processing: fermentation of recombinant E. coli cells, hybridoma cell culture, purification of proteins and antibodies and related analytical procedures. Laboratories accompanied by lectures and relevant readings to cover the underlying principles. Counts as laboratory course for biology major.
        Typically Offered: TBD

        Bio 169 Seminar in Biotechnology. Cross-listed as BME 169 and CHBE 169
        Seminar course. Journal articles on current biotechnology-related research are reviewed. Leading researchers in the field present seminars and students assess future research directions based on in-depth review of articles and presentations. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 62/162
        Typically Offered: TBD

        Bio 171 Biochemistry I. Cross- listed as CHEM 171
        Structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Mechanisms and molecular function of binding proteins, enzymes, and membrane transporters. In- depth explorations of metabolic pathways and regulation with connections to physiology and human disease. Prerequisites: CHEM 51 or two semesters of organic chemistry taken elsewhere. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 13.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 172 Biochemistry II. Cross-listed as CHEM 172
        Continuation of Biology 171. One course. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 171.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 173 R for Biologists.
        Introduction to R, the language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. Programming skills in R will be developed through a combination of reading and doing. (Group Q)
        Typically Offered: TBD

        Bio 174 Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering.
        Covers synthesis, characterization, and functional properties of organic and inorganic biomaterials and the process of tissue engineering. Fundamental issues related to the utility of biomaterials are explored based on their biocompatability, stability, interfaces, and fate in the body. Clinical applications for biomaterials are explored, as are new directions in design and synthesis to achieve better biocompatibility. Testing methods, regulatory issues, legal constraints, and emerging research directions are also discussed.
        Recommendations: CHEM 2, or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 178 Seminar in Immunology.
        Advanced topics in immunology. Readings and discussion of the current literature emphasized. Topics include antigen presentation. T-cell activation, cytokine release and effects, self- and non-self recognition, and immunopathology of HIV. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 104 and permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 179 Seminar: Marine Biology.
        Exploration of the primary scientific literature in areas selected by mutual consent. Topics may include symbiotic interactions, migration and dispersal, larval ecology, adult feeding and locomotory biology, responses to pollutants, and physiology of deep-sea animals. Strong focus on developing critical reading skills and effective writing through frequent, short assignments. (Group C)
        Recommendations: Junior standing and BIO 164 or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 180 Seminar in Conservation Biology.
        Advanced topics in conservation biology. Readings and discussion of the current literature emphasized. Topics will change each year example topics are landscape ecology, dynamics and conservation of small populations, and restoration ecology. Please see departmental website for detailed semester course descriptions. (Group C)
        Recommendations: Upper level Group C course in Biology
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 181 Tropical Ecology Conservation. Cross-listed as ENV 181
        Ecology and evolution of biodiversity in the tropics. Discussions of original literature presentations of particular ecosystems, communities, or organisms team design of research project to be completed during two weeks of intensive fieldwork in December/January in Costa Rica. Meets two times per week during the semester and is followed by a required research trip to Costa Rica. Funding may be available for those in need. (Group C)
        Recommendations: BIO 14L or equivalent. Permission of instructor required.
        Typically Offered: Fall- alternate years

        Bio 182 Chimpanzee Behavioral Ecology. Cross-listed with ANTH 177
        Advanced seminar on current topics in behavioral research of chimpanzees and bonobos. Topics may include foraging, dominance, cooperation, adolescence, reproduction, culture, ranging, cognition, molecular ecology, and social relationships. Discuss behavioral flexibility of chimpanzees among different communities across Africa. Learn to collect and analyze behavioral data. Compare the behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos with that of humans and examine how these species might serve as models for human evolution. (Group C)
        Prerequisites: ANTH 44/BIO 44 or consent.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 183 Darwinian Medicine Seminar.
        The mechanistic vs. evolutionary causes of diseases and modern medical practice. Focus on the evolutionary causes of disease as a means of sharpening research skills and the understanding and application of Darwinian thought. Evolutionary hypothesis creation and testing in both oral and manuscript form. (Group C)
        Prerequisites: BIO 130 or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 185 Food4All: Ecology, Technology, Sustainability. Cross-listed as ENV 182
        An interdisciplinary examination of the pros and cons of two divergent approaches to meeting the increasing global food demand: organic farming and genetic engineering. Contrasting crops grown in developing and industrialized countries serve as case studies to evaluate: (1) how ecological knowledge makes food production more sustainable (2) what existing and emerging approaches can, in the face of climate change, contribute to a reliable supply of nutritious food and (3) the political and economic drivers that shape who has access to these technologies. An important focus is developing communication skills for negotiating stakeholder-specific perspectives (growers, advocacy groups, industry, governmental agencies). Please see departmental website for specific details. (Group C) Recommendations: Intro Bio or Intro Chemistry or equivalent
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 186 Seminar in Field Endocrinology.
        Advanced seminar explores the mechanistic role of endocrine systems in coordinating how animals survive, breed, and adapt to the ever-changing natural environment. Emphasis on wild animals in natural conditions with focus on student-led discussions of primary scientific literature surrounding a core text. (Group B)
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 188 Seminar in Molecular Biology and Genetics.
        Current topics in molecular biology, genetics and genomics, studied through readings from the original literature. Focus will be on studies recognized by the Nobel Prize Committee as pivotal to modern molecular biology and genetics. These studies and current research directions that follow from them will be covered using a combination of lectures, class discussion, and presentations. Selected topics of current interest to be covered include genome structure and polymorphisms as related to human disease, RNA functioning in the regulation of gene expression, and cell cycle regulation and cancer. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 41 and junior standing or permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 190 DNA: Structure-function.
        DNA is the indispensable molecule of life. Fundamentals of DNA structure and functioning are therefore central to understanding molecular genetics and genomics. In this course, DNA structure and function are examined through lectures and discussions of the original scholarly literature. Originally, DNA was believed to be a uniform right-handed double helix with limited structural flexibility. It has now become clear, however, that its structure is highly versatile, and this versatility is vital for major genetic processes. Topics include DNA secondary and tertiary structures, DNA topology and topoisomerases, mechanisms of protein-DNA recognition and the structure of the chromatin how the principles of DNA organization are employed in key genetic transactions, including DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. (Group A)
        Recommendations: BIO 41 and junior standing or consent.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 193/194 Independent Research.
        At least fifteen hours per week of laboratory or field investigation, which must include independent design of experiments. Students write a summary of research accomplished and give an oral presentation to members of the department.
        Recommendations: Sophomore standing or higher, and BIO 93 or BIO 94 or equivalent, and prior permission of research mentor and course coordinator.
        Typically Offered: BIO 193-Fall, BIO 194- Spring

        Bio 195: Independent Study in Biology.
        Exploration of special topics in biology through seminars or guided individual study. Prerequisite: consent.

        Bio 196: Exploratory Topics in Biology.
        Exploration of special topics in biology though seminars or lecture.

        Bio 199 Senior Honors Thesis.
        Intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments, a written thesis, and an oral defense. Application is made during the student's sixth semester. Normally, the applicant should have received at least three grades of A toward satisfying the concentration requirements for the biology major and should have a cumulative GPA of at least 3.30. This is a yearlong course. Each semester counts as 4 credits towards a student’s credit load. Students will earn 8 credits at the end of the second semester.

        Graduate Courses

        Bio 200 Lab Meeting.
        Lab meeting of the Professor in the selected section. This course is only for
        members of the lab, and should not be chosen without permission of the professor. It is 0 credits.
        Typically Offered: Fall & Spring

        Bio 201 Biology Department Seminar.
        This course, designed for biology graduate students, explores in a seminar format current research in the field of Biology. A satisfactory grade translates into attendance of >80% of seminars.
        Typically Offered: Fall & Spring

        Bio 241 Advanced Genetics: DNA Repair and Genome Editing.
        This course will teach the current state-of-the-art knowledge of DNA repair pathways that the cell uses to maintain a stable genome, including double-strand break repair, gap repair, repair and replication through DNA structures and chromatin, and consequences of inappropriate repair for cell health and cancer initiation. It will also cover current genome editing technologies including CRISPR-Cas9, adenovirus-mediated gene delivery for gene therapy, and RNAi. The course will have both a lecture component and a presentation/discussion component emphasizing reading original journal articles in these fields and techniques used to make discoveries.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 243 Topics in Molecular and Cellular Biology.
        Topics will be chosen from the following and differ each year: DNA repair, DNA replication, regulation of gene transcription, cellular mechanisms of maintaining genome stability, protein structure, protein function and regulation, cell biology of signaling pathways, cell-cell communication and biophysical controls of developmental morphology. Students will read and present papers from the current literature. Novel experimental techniques used to answer central questions will be emphasized.
        (Group A)
        Recommendations: A previous course in Cell and Molecular Biology, such as BIO 105 or equivalent, and permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 244 Graduate Seminar in Evolutionary Ecology.
        An examination of current topics in evolutionary ecology, including plant-herbivore coevolution, sexual selection, phenotypic plasticity, life-history strategies, and conservation biology. Reading and discussion of primary literature will include focus on experimental methodologies and statistical methods.
        (Group C)
        Recommendations: BIO 142 or 143, or equivalent, and permission of instructor.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 246 Topics in Physiology of Animal Behavior.
        An examination at the graduate level of current topics in physiology related to animal behavior. Topics may include biomechanics, neurophysiology, endocrinology and cognition. Students will read and present papers from the current literature. Discussions will focus on key papers in the field, critical evaluation of data or published interpretations and an understanding of experimental techniques used to answer central questions. (Group B)
        Prerequisite recommendations: One course from Bio 110, 116, 134 or equivalent, and graduate standing or permission of the instructor.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 253 Graduate Student Research Rotation-Fall.
        A research rotation is an opportunity to explore a new area of Biology, to learn new techniques, and to become acquainted with some of the research ongoing in our department as students conduct intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments ending with a final oral report. Students will normally present their findings the Friday before the start of spring semester. Rotation Duration: Oral reports will be given to a group consisting of other students who have just finished a rotation, the sponsoring research mentors, members of the students' committees, graduate students, and other interested persons.
        Recommendations: Consent.

        Bio 254 Graduate Student Research Rotation-Spring.
        A research rotation is an opportunity to explore a new area of Biology, to learn new techniques, and to become acquainted with some of the research ongoing in our department as students conduct intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments ending with a final oral report. Students will normally present their findings the Friday before the start of spring semester. Rotation Duration: Oral reports will be given to a group consisting of other students who have just finished a rotation, the sponsoring research mentors, members of the students' committees, graduate students, and other interested persons.
        Recommendations: Consent.

        Bio 255 Graduate Student Research Rotation-Summer.
        A research rotation is an opportunity to explore a new area of Biology, to learn new techniques, and to become acquainted with some of the research ongoing in our department as students conduct intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments ending with a final oral report. Students will normally present their findings the Friday before the start of spring semester. Rotation Duration: Oral reports will be given to a group consisting of other students who have just finished a rotation, the sponsoring research mentors, members of the students' committees, graduate students, and other interested persons.
        Recommendations: Consent.

        Bio 256 Master’s Thesis, First Year.
        This course provides credit for first year graduate student MS thesis research. The content includes learning experimental design, research presentations, and reading papers in the field of the chosen ThMS research.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 257 Graduate Research and Experimental Design.
        This course provides credit for second year graduate student thesis or dissertation research. The content includes learning experimental design, research presentations, and reading papers in the field of the chosen PhD or ThMS research.
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 258 Graduate Research and Experimental Design, 2nd Year.
        This course provides credit for second year graduate student thesis or dissertation research. The content includes learning experimental design, research presentations, and reading papers in the field of the chosen PhD or ThMS research.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 259 Capstone Research Proposal and Review.
        This course consists of writing and successfully defending a Research Proposal by the end of the second PhD year, in accordance with the Biology Graduate Guidelines.

        Bio 260 Teaching Biology: Pedagogy and Practice.
        This course aims to enhance the professional development of graduate students by preparing them to teach biological sciences in academic venues that range from community colleges to Research I universities. Graduate student participants will be introduced to issues related to teaching in both lab and lecture settings and will apply effective teaching techniques in their own classrooms. Program participants will learn about pedagogy, gain practical teaching experience, and receive mentoring and formal evaluation of their teaching. The course requirements are designed to be flexible enough to be pursued alongside full-time disciplinary studies yet ensure that participants are rigorously trained in biology-specific pedagogy.
        Recommendations: Consent / BIO13L Teaching Assistants
        Typically Offered: Fall

        Bio 262 Science Communication.
        This course is designed to help graduate students learn how to communicate better about science to the public, to their fellow scientists, to advocacy groups, and to funding agencies. Scientists are increasingly called upon to explain and advocate science to diverse groups. This course will provide training in writing, speaking, and graphical presentation skills in a variety of formats. Students will also learn how to effectively edit and critique their work and others’. We will focus on writing and communicating in a popular style so that students can develop their abilities to present information clearly and logically such skills will translate naturally into writing for scientific journals, for grants, and for presentations at conferences.
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 263 Special Topics.
        Please contact the department for detailed information.

        Bio 264 Molecular Biotechnology. Cross-listed as CHBE 262 and BME 262
        Overview of key aspects of molecular biology and engineering aspects of biotechnology. Lecture topics include molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, immunology, cell biology, protein purification, fermentation, cell culture, combinatorial methods, and bioinformatics. (Group A.) Includes a semester-long technical project and oral presentation. (Also offered as lower-level.)
        Typically Offered: Spring

        Bio 291 Graduate Seminar in Molecular and Development Biology A/B.
        Presentation of individual reports on basic topics in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology to a seminar group for discussion and criticism.

        Bio 292 Graduate Seminar A/B.
        Presentation of individual reports on basic topics to a seminar group for discussion and criticism. Contact departmental for specific details.

        Bio 293 Special Topics.
        Guided individual study of an approved topic.

        Bio 294 Special Topics.
        Guided individual study of an approved topic.

        Bio 295 Master’s Thesis.
        Guided research on a topic that has been approved as a suitable subject for a master's thesis.

        Bio 296 Master’s Thesis.
        Guided research on a topic that has been approved as a suitable subject for a master's thesis.

        Bio 297 PhD Dissertation.
        Guided research on a topic suitable for a doctoral dissertation.

        Bio 298 PhD Dissertation.
        Guided research on a topic suitable for a doctoral dissertation.


        Gross anatomy

        This ancient discipline reached its culmination between 1500 and 1850, by which time its subject matter was firmly established. None of the world’s oldest civilizations dissected a human body, which most people regarded with superstitious awe and associated with the spirit of the departed soul. Beliefs in life after death and a disquieting uncertainty concerning the possibility of bodily resurrection further inhibited systematic study. Nevertheless, knowledge of the body was acquired by treating wounds, aiding in childbirth, and setting broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than descriptive, though, until the achievements of the Alexandrian medical school and its foremost figure, Herophilus (flourished 300 bce ), who dissected human cadavers and thus gave anatomy a considerable factual basis for the first time. Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes regarded as the founder of physiology. In the 2nd century ce , Greek physician Galen assembled and arranged all the discoveries of the Greek anatomists, including with them his own concepts of physiology and his discoveries in experimental medicine. The many books Galen wrote became the unquestioned authority for anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek anatomical texts that survived the Dark Ages in the form of Arabic (and then Latin) translations.

        Owing to church prohibitions against dissection, European medicine in the Middle Ages relied upon Galen’s mixture of fact and fancy rather than on direct observation for its anatomical knowledge, though some dissections were authorized for teaching purposes. In the early 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci undertook his own dissections, and his beautiful and accurate anatomical drawings cleared the way for Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to “restore” the science of anatomy with his monumental De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543 “The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body”), which was the first comprehensive and illustrated textbook of anatomy. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged younger scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after verifying it themselves, and this more critical and questioning attitude broke Galen’s authority and placed anatomy on a firm foundation of observed fact and demonstration.

        From Vesalius’s exact descriptions of the skeleton, muscles, blood vessels, nervous system, and digestive tract, his successors in Padua progressed to studies of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems. Hieronymus Fabricius, Gabriello Fallopius, and Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists, and their detailed studies led to fundamental progress in the related field of physiology. William Harvey’s discovery of the circulation of the blood, for instance, was based partly on Fabricius’s detailed descriptions of the venous valves.


        The evening news, your local paper, online websites, blogs, twitter, Facebook, and yes podcasts all are communicating the latest science news. In this mix of messages are often conflicting stories about what is good and bad for you. It also seems that every other day there is a cure for cancer or some other disease. With all this messaging, who do you trust? Dr. Biology has a chance to talk with Joe Palca, a longtime science correspondent, about who we should trust and science communication.


        Watch the video: Heart -Coronary Artery Bypass Graft CABG off-pump PreOp Patient Education HD (January 2023).