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21.1: Formative Questions - Biology

21.1: Formative Questions - Biology


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21.1: Formative Questions

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Visual Connection Questions

Figure 1.6 In the example below, the scientific method is used to solve an everyday problem. Order the scientific method steps (numbered items) with the process of solving the everyday problem (lettered items). Based on the results of the experiment, is the hypothesis correct? If it is incorrect, propose some alternative hypotheses.

  1. Observation
  2. Question
  3. Hypothesis (answer)
  4. Prediction
  5. Experiment
  6. Result
  1. There is something wrong with the electrical outlet.
  2. If something is wrong with the outlet, my coffeemaker also won’t work when plugged into it.
  3. My toaster doesn’t toast my bread.
  4. I plug my coffee maker into the outlet.
  5. My coffeemaker works.
  6. Why doesn’t my toaster work?

Figure 1.7 Decide if each of the following is an example of inductive or deductive reasoning.

  1. All flying birds and insects have wings. Birds and insects flap their wings as they move through the air. Therefore, wings enable flight.
  2. Insects generally survive mild winters better than harsh ones. Therefore, insect pests will become more problematic if global temperatures increase.
  3. Chromosomes, the carriers of DNA, separate into daughter cells during cell division. Therefore, DNA is the genetic material.
  4. Animals as diverse as humans, insects, and wolves all exhibit social behavior. Therefore, social behavior must have an evolutionary advantage.

Figure 1.16 Which of the following statements is false?

  1. Tissues exist within organs which exist within organ systems.
  2. Communities exist within populations which exist within ecosystems.
  3. Organelles exist within cells which exist within tissues.
  4. Communities exist within ecosystems which exist in the biosphere.

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    • Authors: Connie Rye, Robert Wise, Vladimir Jurukovski, Jean DeSaix, Jung Choi, Yael Avissar
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    The Living World Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

    Question 1.
    Name two organisms that do not reproduce?
    Answer:
    Mules, sterile worker bees.

    Question 2.
    Define ‘living’?
    Answer:
    Organisms exhibiting distinctive characters like growth, reproduction, etc. are called living.

    Question 3.
    Is regeneration a characteristic of living organisms?
    Answer:
    Yes, because fragmented organisms regain the lost part of the body.

    Question 4.
    What is biodiversity? or Define Biodiversity?
    Answer:
    The number and variety of organisms present on earth are referred to as biodiversity.

    Question 5.
    Name the International Authority who gives scientific name to the plants.
    Answer:
    International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)

    Question 6.
    Write the scientific names of the following
    (i) Mango
    Answer:
    Mangifera indica

    (ii) Human
    Answer:
    Homo sapiens

    (iii) Cat
    Answer:
    Felis Domestica

    (iv) Tiger
    Answer:
    Panthera tigris.

    Question 7.
    What is taxonomy?
    Answer:
    Taxonomy is the science of classification that is grouping them on the basis of certain similarities.

    Question 8.
    How does taxonomy differ from systematics?
    Answer:
    Systematics is the study of the diversity of plants. The study of systematics leads to their taxonomic grouping.

    Question 9.
    What is a species?
    Answer:
    A population of identical individuals which can freely interbreed to produce fertile off-springs.

    Question 10.
    What is a taxon?
    Answer:
    A level of classification is called taxon e g., species, genus, family, etc. all are taxons.

    The Living World Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

    Question 1.
    How are zoological parks useful to biologists.
    Answer:
    Zoological parks are places where animals are maintained and allowed to breed in natural habitats.
    (a) It gives information about endangered animals.
    (b) Helps the biologists in developing hybrids with superior quality.
    (c) Support the workers of biotechnology.

    Question 2.
    Write the universal rules of nomenclature.
    Answer:

    1. Biological names are generally in Latin and written in Italics. They are Latinised or derived from Latin irrespective of their origin.
    2. the First word in a biological name represents the genus while the second component denotes a specific epithet.
    3. Both the words in a Biological name when written in hand are separately underlined or printed in Italics to indicate their Latin origin.
    4. First-world denoting genus starts with a capital letter while the specific epithet is written starting with a small word. It can be illustrated with the example of Mangifera indica.
    5. The name of the author appears after a specific epithet i.e., the end of the biological name, and is written in the abbreviated form e.g. Mangifera indica (Linn). It indicates that species was first described by Linnaeus.

    Question 3.
    Explain about taxonomical aids/tools?
    Answer:
    Identification of organisms requires intensive laboratory and field studies. The information about an organism is collected and analyzed. The collection of actual specimens of plant species is essential and is a prime source of taxonomic studies.

    These are also fundamental not only to study but also to training in systematics. It is used for the classification of an organism and the information gathered is also stored along with even the specimens. In some cases, the specimen is preserved for future studies.

    Biologists have established certain procedures and techniques to store and preserve the information as well as the specimens. These techniques are, in fact, aids available for the identification and classification of organisms. The knowledge of these aids is quite helpful in biological studies. Some of these are explained to help to understand the usage of these aids.

    Some of the taxonomical aids are

    Question 4.
    “Consciousness is a defining property of living organisms.” Explain.
    Answer:
    Flora and fauna both respond to physical-chemical or biological environmental stimuli. Awareness of their surroundings makes organisms live. Mimosa pudiea respond to touch. Photoperiodic affects flowering in plants. Thus unicellular microscopic to multicellular huge organisms show the property of consciousness.

    Question 5.
    Reproduction can’t be an all-inclusive defining characteristic of living organisms? Illustrate the statement.
    Answer:
    In nature, there are many organisms that can’t reproduce. Mules, sterile worker bees are some examples of such organisms.

    But the non-living object is strictly unable to reproduce.

    Viruses are placed between living and non-living. They are crystallized like non-livings but replicate when enter inside living organisms.

    The Living World Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

    Question 1.
    Explain two defining characteristics of living organisms.
    Answer:
    Growth Unicellular and multicellular organisms increase their mass and number through cell-division. Non-livings increase their size by the accumulation of matter.
    (a) Cell has protoplasm which is living matter. Cell before division increases their mass through replication of genetic matter. It is absent in non-livings.

    (b) Metabolic Activity: Anabolic and catabolic reaction constantly occurs in living organisms, formation and conversion of biomolecules is metabolism.

    ‘In Vitro, such reactions can be maintained. In non-living, there is the absence of metabolism.

    Question 2.
    Explain the utility of systematics for classification.
    Answer:
    For classification, systematic studies have to carried out.


    Quick and Useful Formative Assessment Tools

    It's time to get some great formative assessment tools into your toolbox. Hopefully, this list will give you some ideas and start-off points.

    Signs

    These are easy and also incorporate a sense of self-assessment. It is non-threatening allowing students to be truthful about their responses. The teacher does not pass judgment but can gauge a percentage of how much he or she needs to reteach.

    • Yes/No cards—The teacher will ask a question. Students respond by holding up the appropriate card, whether they know the answer or not. In this way, they self-assess their assuredness on a topic. The teacher reviews what is needed, or gives differentiated help to those in need.
    • Thumbs up/Down—This works the same as Yes or No cards. Instead, students just use their thumbs (like at the end of a Roman Coliseum show).
    • Color Cards—Students rate their knowledge:
      • Red (I’m completely lost)
      • Yellow (Slow down, I'm struggling a bit)
      • Green (I've got it, it's all good)
      • 1 finger (Lost)
      • 2 fingers (Not quite lost, but searching)
      • 3 fingers (Understood completely)

      Writing

      These activities assess understanding and the student's ability to write and formulate ideas. Writing capability and fine motor dexterity will vary among your students. Take this into consideration, especially if you’re timing it.

      • Invent the Quiz—What better way to gauge comprehension than by getting students to write their assessments themselves? By answering their own questions, they’ll be ready for the final.
      • Opinion Chart—This can be in the form of a T-chart (e.g. Left = Opinions Right = Support). Try this template from ReadWriteThink.
      • Mind Map—Mind Maps should be taught, so plan this ahead of time. It’s a great self-assessment tool to use as students get older. Here are some examples.
      • KWL (Know, Want, Learn) Charts—KWL charts let students organize and analyze information from a lesson. They are also great critical thinking tools that get students interested in new topics. They ask these three questions:
        • What do you know already?
        • What do you want to know?
        • What did you learn?
        • 321 Charts—These charts ask students to record 3 things they learned, 2 things they found interesting, and 1 question they still have. You can add variations to each of these as well. Some suggestions are below:
          • things that surprised you
          • things that have inspired you
          • the people you will discuss what you've learned with
          • action(s) you're going to take starting now

          Going out on a limb and showing off their aesthetic skills are what some children crave, so the creative types will love these.

          • Illustration/Sketch—Use pictures to establish connections and explain them.
          • Advertisement/Pamphlet/Multimedia Poster/Infographic—You can have students use any number of tools for this. You can also go old school and use traditional materials.
          • Comic Book—Use tools like Pixton or Make Beliefs to illustrate a concept. Or again, go old school and draw freehand.
          • Think-Ink-Pair-Share—Time is given to think about a topic. Students then write down their thoughts, pair up with another student and share what they’ve written.

          Talking

          Who can forget the good old conversation style of knowledge sharing? Face-to-face interaction remains the best engagement and collaboration avenue for students.

          • Four Corners—Corners of the room are labeled “Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree.” Statements are read aloud and students go to their respective corner. This is then followed by open discussion.
          • Top 10 List (with humor)—These kinds of lists focus on the big important ideas.

          Movement

          These are great ice breakers. Get-up-and-stretch physical activities get the blood pumping and the brain working. Movement boosts enthusiasm, too.

          • Carousel Brainstorm—Large sheets of paper are stationed around the room with topics at each top. Groups go around to each chart, brainstorming their ideas on the topic. When the “carousel” stops, students discuss their findings.
          • Turn and Talk—This simple discussion tactic is used to great effect in lectures and keynotes. The teacher asks a thought-provoking question about the topic. Students "turn" to the person beside them and discuss the answers with each other.
          • Talk Show Panel—Students are assigned a position about a topic (whether they agree or disagree). They must internalize the position and then discuss it in a panel, debate-style.
          • Podcasting—Tools like Easy Podcast, Podbean, or Audacity make it easy. Students can speak as the expert on a topic with a podcast. It's a great exercise for media knowledge and creativity, as well as oral skills.
          • Dramatic Interpretation—Enact scenes from a book or any concept for that matter. Imagination is the ticket here.
          • Misconception Check—The teacher states a common misconception about a topic. Students agree or disagree, and discuss.

          100 Biology Trivia Questions None Should Miss

          Biology is a topic that explains life around us with many interesting trivia questions for the learners. From microscopic organisms to large mammoths, the dwelling world is residence to a number of animals and crops. Even our human body is a treasure trove of educational information and insights of biology trivia questions.

          As an illustration, do you know that the human lung can float on water? Or the truth that our liver has the superb capacity to regenerate with biology trivia questions?

          One can discover all these fascinating biology trivia questions and improve one’s information.

          Most of our physique capabilities appear fairly uninteresting, however, these similar capabilities and roles in different organisms are eye-openers to us. It’s because most of them are actually fascinating and mind-bending biology trivia questions.

          The best vertical bounce ever carried out by a human measured at simply over 7 toes. That is insignificant once we have a look at different organisms from the animal kingdom found in these biology trivia questions.

          As an illustration, fleas can bounce 150 occasions increased than their very own physique peak.

          When that is scaled as much as our proportions, it’s just like a human leaping over 800 toes, which is near twice as excessive because of the Pyramids of Egypt as well as these biology trivia questions.


          Solving the The Living World Multiple Choice Questions of Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 MCQ can be of extreme help as you will be aware of all the concepts. These MCQ Questions on The Living World Class 11 with answers pave for a quick revision of the Chapter thereby helping you to enhance subject knowledge. Have a glance at the MCQ of Chapter 1 Biology Class 11 and cross-check your answers during preparation.

          I. Select the correct answer of the following questions.

          Question 1.
          Scientific name are drawn form
          (a) Latin
          (b) English
          (c) Sanskrit
          (d) Arabic

          Question 2.
          Binomial nomenclature was given by
          (a) Linnaeus
          (b) Pliny
          (c) Bentham and Hookes
          (d) Aristotle

          Question 3.
          Systematics is the study of
          (a) Diversity amongst groups
          (b) Grouping of organisms
          (c) Identification and grouping of organisms
          (d) Nomenclature and classification or organisms

          Answer: (a) Diversity amongst groups

          Question 4.
          Taxonomy refers to
          (a) Classification
          (b) Nomenclature
          (c) Identification
          (d) All of these

          Question 5.
          Which of the following has more characters In chtnmon?
          (a) Species
          (b) Genus
          (c) Class
          (d) Division

          Question 6.
          Any type of taxonomic group of the organisms is called
          (a) Taion
          (b) Category
          (c) Classification
          (d) Rank of hierarchy

          Question 7.
          A rank or level in the hierarchial classification of organisms is a
          (a) Taxon
          (b) Category
          (c) Key
          (d) All of these

          Question 8.
          Which of the following is not a correct hierarchial order?
          (a) Phylum, order, family
          (b) Class, family, genus
          (c) Class, order, family
          (d) Family, class, order

          Answer: (d) Family, class, order

          Question 9.
          Father of Taxonomy is
          (a) Linnaeus
          (b) Aristotle
          (c) John Ray
          (d) None of the above

          Question 10.
          ‘Systema Nature’ is a book written by
          (a) Linnaeus
          (b) Charak
          (c) John Roy
          (d) De Candole

          Question 1.
          All living organisms ………. Increase in ………… and increase in ………… of individuals are twin characteristics of growth.

          Question 2.
          ………., this growth by cell division occurs continuously throughout their life.

          Question 3.
          ……….. , this growth is seen only up to a certain age.

          Question 4.
          The fungi, the filamentous algae, the protonema of mosses, all easily multiply by …………….

          Question 5.
          All living organisms are made of ………….

          Question 6.
          Celluar organisation of the body is the defining feature of life …………

          Question 7.
          We sense our environment through our ………….

          Answer: light, water, temperature

          Question 9.
          Biology is the story of life on …………

          Question 10.
          Biology is the story of ………… of living organisms on earth.

          III. Mark the Statements True (T) or False (F):

          Question 1.
          There is a need to standardise the naming of living organisms such that a particular organism is known by the same name all over world. This process is called nomenclature.

          Question 2.
          Biologists follow universally accepted principles to provide scientific name to known organisms. Each name has two components-the Generic name and the specific epithet

          Question 3.
          System of providing a name with two components is called Binomical nomenclature.

          Question 4.
          Biological names are generally in Latin and written in italics.

          Question 5.
          Both the words in a biological name, when handwritten, are separately underlined, or printed in italics to indicate their Latin origin.

          Question 6.
          The first word denoting the genus starts with a capital letter while the specific epithet starts with a small letter.

          Question 7.
          All living organisms can be classified into different taxa. This process of classification is taxonomy.

          Question 8.
          Taxonomic categories and hierarchy can be illustrated by an example.

          Question 9.
          Taxonomical studies of all known organisms have led to the development of common categories such as kindom, phylum or division (for plants), class order, family, genus and species.

          Question 10.
          Herbarium is a store house of collected plant specimens that are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets.

          IV. Match the column I with column II.

          Column I Column II
          A. Herbarium 1. Contrast pair or couplet
          B. Key 2. Information on any one taxon.
          C. Monographs 3. Lucknow
          D. Kingdom 4. Highest taxonomic category
          E. National Botanical Research Institute 5. Storage of collected dried plant specimens.
          Answer

          Column I Column II
          A. Herbarium 5. Storage of collected dried plant specimens.
          B. Key 1. Contrast pair or couplet
          C. Monographs 2. Information on any one taxon.
          D. Kingdom 4. Highest taxonomic category
          E. National Botanical Research Institute 3. Lucknow

          Hope the information shared regarding the NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World with Answers Pdf free download is true and genuine as far as our knowledge is concerned. If you feel any information regarding CBSE Class 11 Biology The Living World MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers is missing do reach us and we will look into it and add it accordingly.


          21.1: Formative Questions - Biology

          2. Describe the consequences of a base substitution mutation with regards to sickle cell anemia. 7 marks

          • the sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA codes for the sequence of amino acids in proteins
          • DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is translated into amino acids of protein
          • normal (ß chain) hemoglobin gene / DNA produces normal (ß chain) hemoglobin protein / amino acids
          • substitution= the replacement of one (or more) nucleotide base with another
          • caused by a copying mistake during DNA replication
          • as a result of a mutagen / X-rays / chemical / UV radiation / other mutagen
          • mutation in normal (ß chain) hemoglobin gene alters the sequence of nucleotide bases
          • normal nucleotide sequence = CTC altered to CAC
          • resulting in altered mRNA (GAG to GUG) during transcription
          • resulting in altered sequence of amino acids in (ß chain) hemoglobin protein (glutamic acid to valine) during translation
          • causing red blood cells to change shape / sickle under low oxygen conditions
          • causing sickle cells anemia when two copies of the mutated gene are inherited
          • producing a sickle cell carrier when one copy of the mutated gene is inherited
          • sickle cells anemia reduces oxygen flow to organs, leading to their deterioration

          3. Explain how an error in meiosis can lead to Down syndrome. 8 marks

          Accept the points below in an appropriately annotated diagram.

          • non-disjunction
          • chromosomes/chromatids do not separate / go to same pole
          • non-separation of (homologous) chromosomes during anaphase I
          • due to incorrect spindle attachment
          • non-separation of chromatids during anaphase II
          • due to centromeres not dividing
          • occurs during gamete/sperm/egg formation
          • less common in sperm than egg formation / function of parents' age
          • Down syndrome due to extra chromosome 21
          • sperm/egg/gamete receives two chromosomes of same type
          • zygote/offspring with three chromosomes of same type / trisomy / total 47 chromosomes

          4. Karyograms involve arranging the chromosomes of an individual into pairs. Describe one application of this process, including the way in which the chromosomes are obtained. 5 marks

          • find gender / test for Down's syndrome / other chromosome abnormality
          • identify sex chromosomes / numbers of chromosome 21 / other chromosomes counted
          • XX = female and XY = male / third chromosome 21 indicates Down's syndrome / other chromosome abnormality (e.g. Klinefelter's syndrome)
          • fetal cells obtained from amniotic fluid / amniocentesis / other named source
          • white blood cells obtained
          • cells encouraged to divide
          • cells accumulated / blocked in metaphase
          • prepare slide / chromosomes examined

          5. Compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis. 6 marks

          answers must be pair-wise comparisons to receive any marks.

          • Mitosis: one cell division & Meiosis: two divisions / reduction division
          • Mitosis: chromosome number does not change & Meiosis: converts diploid to haploid cells
          • Mitosis: products genetically identical & Meiosis: products genetically diverse
          • Mitosis: separation of sister chromatids in anaphase & Meiosis: separation of homologous chromosomes in anaphase I and sister chromatids in anaphase II
          • Mitosis: no crossing over & Meiosis: crossing over in prophase I
          • Mitosis: no formation of tetrads / no synapsis & Meiosis: formation of tetrads / synapsis
          • Mitosis: produce cells for growth/repair/asexual reproduction & Meiosis: produce sexual cells / gametes for sexual reproduction
          • Mitosis: two cells produced & Meiosis: four cells produced
          • Mitosis: daughter cells with both copies of chromosomes/random assortment does not occur & Meiosis: random assortment of maternal/ paternal chromosomes
          • Mitosis: replication of DNA in interphase & Meiosis: replication of DNA in interphase I
          • Mitosis: four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase & Meiosis: same four phases twice

          6. Outline one example of inheritance involving multiple alleles. 5 marks

          • multiple alleles means a gene has three or more alleles / more than two alleles
          • ABO blood groups / other named example of multiple alleles
          • ABO gene has three alleles / equivalent for other example
          • IA IB and i shown (at some point in the answer) / equivalent for other example
          • any two of these alleles are present in an individual
          • homozygous and heterozygous genotye with phenotypes (shown somewhere)
          • all six genotypes with phenotypes given (shown somewhere)
          • example / diagram of a cross involving all three alleles

          7. Describe the inheritance of ABO blood groups including an example of the possible outcomes of a homozygous blood group A mother having a child with a blood group O father. 5 marks

          • example of co-dominance
          • multiple alleles / 3 alleles
          • (phenotype) O has (genotype) ii
          • B can be IB IB or IB i
          • A can be IA IA or IA i
          • AB is IA IB
          • (P are) i i x IA IA
          • (gametes) i and IA
          • (F1 genotype) IA i
          • (F1 phenotype) blood group A

          8. Outline sex linkage. 5 marks

          • gene carried on sex chromosome / X chromosome / Y chromosome
          • inheritance different in males than in females
          • males have only one X chromosome therefore, only one copy of the gene
          • mutation on Y chromosome can only be inherited by males
          • women can be carriers if only one X chromosome affected
          • example of sex linked characteristics (e.g. hemophilia / color blindness)
          • example of cross involving linkage

          9. Explain, using a named example, why many sex-linked diseases occur more frequently in men than women. 9 marks

          • named example of sex-linked disease
          • caused by recessive allele
          • on the X chromosome
          • example of pair of alleles (e.g. X H and X h) (reject if alleles do not correspond)
          • females are XX and males are XY
          • females have two alleles of the gene and males have only one
          • allele causing the disease is rare / uncommon
          • probability of femles inheriting rare allele twice as low
          • calculation of squaring the gene frequency
          • female would have to inherit the allele from her father
          • who would have suffered from the disease
          • so females can carry the gene but still be normal
          • but males (with the gene) will have the disease

          10. Outline the formation of chiasmata during crossing over. 5 marks


          Watch the video: formative tuan haziq (January 2023).